The Developmental Organization of Robot Behavior

by Grupen

ISBN: 9780262363280 | Copyright 2023

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A comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundations of movement and actuation that apply equally to animals and machines.

This textbook offers a computational framework for the sensorimotor stage of development as applied to robotics. Much work in developmental robotics is based on ad hoc examples, without a full computational basis. This book's comprehensive and complete treatment fills the gap, drawing on the principal mechanisms of development in the first year of life to introduce what is essentially an operating system for developing robots. The goal is to apply principles of development to robot systems that not only achieve new levels of performance but also provide evidence for scientific theories of human development.

The book covers motor units, explaining how animals and robots actuate and control their bodies; discusses kinematics and dynamics of articulated sensorimotor mechanisms, including a traditional treatment of the kinematics of grasping; examines the commonly used sensor modalities of vision and touch, comparing them to their biological counterparts; and explores the role of developmental neurology in the first year of life, codifying it in a computational architecture for developmental robotics. Written exercises reinforce the content. Programming projects can be undertaken using a simple robot simulator, “Roger” (named after Paul Churchland's Roger the Crab). Appendixes provide supporting mathematics, including a primer on linear algebra and integral transforms, common methods for deriving the dynamic equation of motion for articulated systems, the basics of numerical relaxation, and an introduction to Q-learning.

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Contents (pg. vii)
Preface (pg. vii)
Acknowledgments (pg. vii)
1. Introduction (pg. 1)
1.1 Knowledge and Representation (pg. 3)
1.2 Embodied Cognitive Systems (pg. 5)
1.3 Developmental Robotics (pg. 5)
Example: Learning to Walk: A Developmental Conspiracy (pg. 6)
1.4 Frontiers in Robotics (pg. 8)
1.5 Organization of the Book (pg. 10)
1.6 Exercises (pg. 12)
I. Motor Units (pg. 15)
2. Actuation (pg. 17)
2.1 Muscle (pg. 17)
2.2 Robot Actuators (pg. 24)
2.3 Exercises (pg. 43)
3. Closed-Loop Control (pg. 47)
3.1 The Closed-Loop Spinal Stretch Reflex (pg. 48)
3.2 The Canonical Spring-Mass-Damper (pg. 51)
3.3 Proportional-Derivative Feedback Control (pg. 58)
3.4 Exercises (pg. 70)
Part I. Summary: Muscles, Motors, and Control (pg. 76)
II. Structure in Kinodynamic Systems (pg. 77)
4. Kinematic Systems (pg. 79)
4.1 Terminology (pg. 79)
4.2 Spatial Tasks (pg. 80)
4.3 Homogeneous Transforms (pg. 84)
4.4 Manipulator Kinematics (pg. 88)
4.5 Kinematics of Stereo Reconstruction (pg. 95)
4.6 Hand-Eye Kinematic Transformations (pg. 98)
4.7 Kinematic Conditioning (pg. 101)
4.8 Kinematic Redundancy (pg. 109)
4.9 Exercises (pg. 112)
5. Hands and Kinematic Grasp Analysis (pg. 119)
5.1 The Human Hand (pg. 119)
5.2 Kinematic Innovations in Robot Hands (pg. 122)
5.3 Mathematical Description of Multiple Contact Systems (pg. 129)
5.4 Exercises (pg. 142)
6. Dynamics of Articulated Systems (pg. 147)
6.1 Newton's Laws (pg. 147)
6.2 The Inertia Tensor (pg. 148)
6.3 The Computed Torque Equation (pg. 153)
6.4 Exercises (pg. 162)
Part II. Summary: The Kinodynamic Affordances of Embodied Systems (pg. 165)
III. Structure in Sensor Feedback (pg. 167)
7. Stimuli and Sensation: Organs of Visual and Tactile Perception (pg. 169)
7.1 Light (pg. 170)
7.2 Touch (pg. 178)
7.3 Exercises (pg. 187)
8. Signals, Signal Processing, and Information (pg. 191)
8.1 Sampling Continuous Signals (pg. 191)
8.2 Discrete Convolution Operators (pg. 199)
8.3 Structure and Causality in Signals (pg. 207)
8.4 Exercises (pg. 216)
Part III. Summary: Transducers, Signals, and Perceptual Structure (pg. 218)
IV. Sensorimotor Development (pg. 219)
9. Infant Neurodevelopmental Organization (pg. 221)
9.1 The Evolution of the Brain (pg. 221)
9.2 Hierarchy in the Neocortex (pg. 223)
9.3 Neurodevelopmental Organization (pg. 229)
9.4 Developmental and Functional Chronology in the First Year (pg. 243)
9.5 Sensory and Cognitive Milestones (pg. 246)
9.6 Exercises (pg. 249)
10. A Computational Framework for Experiments in Developmental Learning (pg. 251)
10.1 Parametric Closed-Loop Reflexes (pg. 252)
10.2 A Multimodal Landscape of Attractors (pg. 268)
10.3 Exercises (pg. 278)
11. Case Study: Learning to Walk (pg. 281)
11.1 Thing: A Quadruped (pg. 281)
11.2 Controllers and Control Combinatorics (pg. 283)
11.3 Locomotion Controllers (pg. 286)
11.4 Learning the ROTATE Skill (pg. 289)
11.5 The STEP Skill (pg. 290)
11.6 Hierarchical WALK and NAVIGATE Skills (pg. 292)
11.7 Developmental Performance: Hierarchical Gross Motor Skills (pg. 294)
Part IV. Summary: Foundations for Hierarchical Skills (pg. 298)
Appendix A. Tools for Linear Analysis (pg. 299)
A.1 Linear Algebra (pg. 299)
A.2 Matrix Inverse (pg. 302)
A.3 Definiteness (pg. 303)
A.4 Hessian (pg. 304)
A.5 Matrix Norms (pg. 305)
A.6 Quadratic Forms (pg. 305)
Example: Plotting the Quadratic Form (pg. 306)
A.7 Singular Value Decomposition (pg. 307)
A.8 Scalar Condition Metrics for Linear Transforms (pg. 309)
A.8.1 Minimum Singular Value (pg. 309)
A.8.2 Condition Number (pg. 309)
A.8.3 Volume (pg. 310)
A.8.4 Radius (pg. 310)
A.9 The Pseudoinverse (pg. 312)
A.10 Linear Integral Transforms (pg. 315)
A.10.1 Complex Numbers (pg. 316)
A.10.2 Fourier Transform (pg. 317)
A.10.3 Laplace Transform (pg. 320)
A.11 Time-Domain Responses for the Harmonic Oscillator (pg. 321)
Example: Time-Domain Response of the Spring-Mass-Damper (pg. 323)
Example: The Root Locus Diagram for the PD Control System (pg. 325)
A.11.1 Frequency-Dependent Amplitude and Phase Response (pg. 326)
A.11.2 Stiffness and Impedance (pg. 329)
Appendix B. The Dynamics of Kinematic Chains (pg. 331)
B.1 Deriving the Inertia Tensor (pg. 331)
B.2 Inertial Coordinate Frames (pg. 334)
B.3 Rotating Coordinate Systems (pg. 334)
B.4 Newton-Euler Iterations (pg. 337)
B.4.1 Propagating Velocities in Open Kinematic Chains (pg. 338)
B.4.2 Propagating Force in Open Kinematic Chains (pg. 340)
B.4.3 The Outward-Inward Iteration (pg. 342)
B.5 Lagrangian Mechanics (pg. 349)
Appendix C. Numerical Methods for Solving Laplace's Equation (pg. 351)
Example: A Collision-Free Arm Controller for Roger (pg. 353)
Bibliography (pg. 357)
Index (pg. 371)

Roderic A. Grupen

Roderic A. Grupen is Professor of Computer Science and Director of the Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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