Technology and Society

Building our Sociotechnical Future

ISBN: 9780262539968 | Copyright 2021

Click here to preview

Instructor Requests

Digital Exam/Desk Copy Print Desk Copy Ancillaries
Tabs
Expand/Collapse All
Title page (pg. i)
Series Title (pg. ii)
Title (pg. iii)
Contents (pg. v)
Introduction (pg. 1)
I Visions of a Technological Future (pg. 7)
1 The Machine Stops (pg. 11)
Part I: The Air-Ship (pg. 11)
Part II: The Mending Apparatus (pg. 19)
Part III: The Homeless (pg. 25)
2 The Prolongation of Life (pg. 33)
Notes (pg. 42)
3 Reproductive Ectogenesis: The Third Era of Human Reproduction and Some Moral Consequences (pg. 45)
Using Fictional Stories to Explore Conceptual and Moral Problems (pg. 46)
The Future Scenario of Pig Pharmaceuticals Limited (pg. 47)
The Ethicist’s View (pg. 49)
Comments on the Possibility, the Consequences and Desirability of Reproductive Ectogenesis (pg. 50)
Acknowledgment (pg. 53)
Personal Note (pg. 53)
Notes (pg. 53)
4 Eight Great Technologies (pg. 55)
1 Big Data (pg. 59)
2 Space (pg. 60)
3 Robotics and Autonomous Systems (pg. 60)
4 Synthetic Biology (pg. 61)
5 Regenerative Medicine (pg. 61)
6 Agri-science (pg. 62)
7 Advanced Materials (pg. 62)
8 Energy (pg. 63)
Conclusion: A Date for Your Diary (pg. 65)
5 Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us (pg. 67)
The New Luddite Challenge (pg. 68)
Notes (pg. 85)
6 Sultana’s Dream (pg. 87)
Notes (pg. 94)
II The Relationship Between Technology and Society (pg. 95)
7 Do Machines Make History? (pg. 99)
Notes (pg. 106)
8 The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts (pg. 109)
Technology Studies (pg. 109)
EPOR and SCOT (pg. 112)
The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts (pg. 121)
Conclusion (pg. 128)
Notes (pg. 129)
References (pg. 131)
9 Technological Momentum (pg. 137)
Technological Systems (pg. 139)
EBASCO as a Cause and an Effect (pg. 140)
Gathering Technological Momentum (pg. 140)
Characteristics of Momentum (pg. 141)
Using Momentum (pg. 143)
Conclusion (pg. 143)
Notes (pg. 144)
10 Where Are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts (pg. 147)
Description of a Door (pg. 149)
Delegation to Humans (pg. 151)
Delegation to Nonhumans (pg. 152)
Anthropomorphism (pg. 154)
Built-In Users and Authors (pg. 155)
Figurative and Nonfigurative Characters (pg. 157)
From Nonhumans to Superhumans (pg. 161)
Texts and Machines (pg. 163)
Notes (pg. 168)
References (pg. 171)
11 Gender: The Missing Factor in STS (pg. 173)
Feminist Studies of Science and Technology (pg. 174)
The STS Perspective (pg. 176)
The Importance of Gender (pg. 178)
Notes (pg. 180)
References (pg. 181)
11139_003 (pg. 185)
12 Do Artifacts Have Politics? (pg. 189)
Technical Arrangements and Social Order (pg. 191)
Inherently Political Technologies (pg. 196)
Notes (pg. 202)
13 Control: Human and Nonhuman Robots (pg. 205)
Controlling Employees (pg. 206)
Controlling Customers (pg. 212)
The Ultimate Examples of Control? Birth and Death (pg. 217)
Conclusion (pg. 223)
Notes (pg. 224)
14 White (pg. 229)
Lighting for Whiteness (pg. 230)
Notes (pg. 234)
References (pg. 234)
15 Manufacturing Gender in Commercial and Military Cockpit Design (pg. 237)
Technological Bias in Existing Aircraft (pg. 237)
Technological Bias within Defense Aircraft (pg. 238)
Technological Bias within Commercial Aircraft (pg. 239)
Regulating Accommodation in Defense Aircraft (pg. 241)
Notes (pg. 244)
References (pg. 244)
16 Amish Technology: Reinforcing Values and Building Community (pg. 247)
Amish Community and Values (pg. 250)
Rules That Bind and Nurture (pg. 251)
Ordnung and Amish Change (pg. 252)
Regulating Technological Change (pg. 253)
Regulating Electricity (pg. 255)
Amish Transportation (pg. 255)
“Running About” (pg. 257)
Modern Pressures (pg. 258)
Amish Entrepreneurs (pg. 259)
Line Dividing Home and Work (pg. 261)
Where the Amish Stand Today (pg. 262)
Acknowledgment (pg. 263)
Notes (pg. 263)
References (pg. 264)
17 Preserving Traditional Knowledge: Initiatives in India (pg. 267)
Traditional Knowledge (pg. 267)
Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge (pg. 268)
Traditional Medicinal Knowledge of India (pg. 268)
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) (pg. 269)
Conclusion (pg. 272)
Notes (pg. 273)
18 Equity in Forecasting Climate: Can Science Save the World’s Poor? (pg. 275)
Forecasting Climate and Accounting for Equity (pg. 277)
Impact of Inequality on Equity (pg. 280)
Opportunity Cost of SCF Use (pg. 281)
Concluding Remarks (pg. 282)
Notes (pg. 283)
References (pg. 284)
11139_004 (pg. 287)
19 Sociotechnical Complexity: Redesigning a Shielding Wall (pg. 291)
A Strange Supervisory Board (pg. 292)
A Simple Object in a Complex Environment (pg. 293)
Interactions between Objects (pg. 295)
Technical or Strategic Work? (pg. 296)
Stabilizing What the Neighbors Want (pg. 298)
Operational Summary (pg. 300)
Notes (pg. 301)
20 Fukushima and the Inevitability of Accidents (pg. 303)
Regulations (pg. 304)
Warnings (pg. 306)
Coping (pg. 308)
Funding (pg. 310)
References (pg. 310)
21 Nature as Infrastructure: Making and Managing the Panama Canal Watershed (pg. 311)
Nature as Infrastructure (pg. 313)
Assembling the Panama Canal (pg. 316)
Making the Panama Canal Watershed (pg. 319)
Conclusions (pg. 327)
Acknowledgments (pg. 328)
Notes (pg. 328)
References (pg. 330)
22 Conceptions of Control and IT Artefacts: An Institutional Account of the Amazon Rainforest Monitoring System (pg. 335)
Introduction (pg. 335)
Institutional Theory and IT Artefacts (pg. 336)
Conceptions of Control and Dialectics (pg. 338)
Research Methodology (pg. 339)
The Amazon Rainforest Monitoring System (pg. 339)
Contextualizing the Monitoring System (pg. 341)
Discussion (pg. 345)
Conclusion (pg. 350)
Notes (pg. 351)
References (pg. 351)
23 Franken-Algorithms: The Deadly Consequences of Unpredictable Code (pg. 357)
What Is an Algorithm? (pg. 358)
Clashing Codes (pg. 360)
Real-Life Dangers (pg. 362)
The Military Stakes (pg. 363)
Searching for a Solution (pg. 365)
24 The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food (pg. 367)
“In This Field, I’m a Game Changer.” (pg. 370)
“It’s Called Vanishing Caloric Density.” (pg. 373)
“These People Need a Lot of Things, but They Don’t Need a Coke.” (pg. 377)
Note (pg. 378)
25 The Gender Binary Will Not Be Deprogrammed: Ten Years of Coding Gender on Facebook (pg. 379)
Introduction (pg. 379)
Methods (pg. 381)
Coding Gender, Sociotechnical Problems, and Monetization (pg. 381)
Designing Non-mandatory Gender in Year Zero and Custom Gender in Year Ten (pg. 383)
Binary by Design: Restricting Access to Non-binary Possibilities (pg. 385)
Resisting Control by Hacking Gender (pg. 389)
More Invisible Layers: Surveillance, Authenticity, and Interoperability (pg. 390)
Conclusion (pg. 392)
Acknowledgments (pg. 393)
Funding (pg. 393)
Notes (pg. 393)
References (pg. 394)
26 Audible Citizenship and Audiomobility: Race, Technology, and CB Radio (pg. 397)
Acknowledgment (pg. 409)
Notes (pg. 409)
27 Drones for the Good: Technological Innovations, Social Movements, and the State (pg. 413)
Innovation (pg. 414)
Civil Society Uses (pg. 416)
State Accountability and Conflict (pg. 418)
Frameworks (pg. 419)
Conclusion (pg. 422)
Notes (pg. 423)
V Twenty-First Challenges and Strategies (pg. 429)
28 Engineering the Brain: Ethical Issues and the Introduction of Neural Devices (pg. 433)
Identity (pg. 435)
Normality (pg. 437)
Authority (pg. 438)
Moral and Legal Responsibility (pg. 439)
Privacy (pg. 440)
Justice (pg. 442)
The Beginning of a Discussion (pg. 443)
Acknowledgments (pg. 444)
Disclosure (pg. 444)
Notes (pg. 444)
29 Cyber (In)security: Threat Assessment in the Cyber Domain (pg. 449)
What, When, and Where? (pg. 450)
How? (pg. 451)
Why? (pg. 452)
Three Ways of Being a Hacktivist (pg. 453)
Conventional Warfare (pg. 454)
Unrestricted Warfare (pg. 455)
State-Sponsored Hacktivism as a New Form of Warfare (pg. 457)
Notes (pg. 459)
30 Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation (pg. 463)
Introduction (pg. 464)
Responsible Research and Innovation (pg. 465)
Opening up the “Surprise Room” (pg. 468)
Geoengineering as Planetary Experiment (pg. 469)
Governing Geoengineering Experiments (pg. 471)
From Noun to Verb (pg. 474)
Notes (pg. 476)
References (pg. 476)
31 Seven Principles for Equitable Adaptation (pg. 483)
Climate Change Impacts (pg. 484)
Climate Change Impacts and Equity (pg. 485)
Seven Principles for Equitable Adaptation (pg. 485)
Conclusion (pg. 491)
Notes (pg. 491)
32 Socio-Energy Systems Design: A Policy Framework for Energy Transitions (pg. 501)
1 Introduction (pg. 501)
2 Rethinking Energy Policy as Socio-Energy Systems Design (pg. 503)
3 Case Studies in Socio-Energy Systems Analysis and Design (pg. 507)
4 Bring Socio-Energy System Design into Energy Policy and Governance (pg. 514)
5 Conclusion (pg. 520)
Acknowledgments (pg. 521)
Notes (pg. 521)
References (pg. 521)
33 Debugging Bias: Busting the Myth of Neutral Technology (pg. 527)
34 When Winning Is Losing: Why the Nation That Invented the Computer Lost Its Lead (pg. 531)
Victory from the Jaws of Defeat (pg. 532)
The Girls in the Machine (pg. 532)
Building the Digital Age (pg. 533)
Re-gendering Computing (pg. 534)
Power and Technology (pg. 537)
The Beginning of the End (pg. 538)
Worse Things than Losing (pg. 540)
Notes (pg. 542)
35 Shaping Technology for the “Good Life”: The Technological Imperative versus the Social Imperative (pg. 543)
The Technological Imperative Full Blown—Moore’s Law and Its Distortions (pg. 544)
The Slow-Food Movement in Italy (pg. 547)
Tying It All Together (pg. 551)
Conclusion: A New Bipolarity? (pg. 552)
Note (pg. 554)
References (pg. 554)
36 Not Just One Future (pg. 555)
Notes (pg. 564)
References (pg. 565)
11139_555 (pg. 567)
Title page (pg. i)
Series Title (pg. ii)
Title (pg. iii)
Contents (pg. v)
Introduction (pg. 1)
I Visions of a Technological Future (pg. 7)
1 The Machine Stops (pg. 11)
Part I: The Air-Ship (pg. 11)
Part II: The Mending Apparatus (pg. 19)
Part III: The Homeless (pg. 25)
2 The Prolongation of Life (pg. 33)
Notes (pg. 42)
3 Reproductive Ectogenesis: The Third Era of Human Reproduction and Some Moral Consequences (pg. 45)
Using Fictional Stories to Explore Conceptual and Moral Problems (pg. 46)
The Future Scenario of Pig Pharmaceuticals Limited (pg. 47)
The Ethicist’s View (pg. 49)
Comments on the Possibility, the Consequences and Desirability of Reproductive Ectogenesis (pg. 50)
Acknowledgment (pg. 53)
Personal Note (pg. 53)
Notes (pg. 53)
4 Eight Great Technologies (pg. 55)
1 Big Data (pg. 59)
2 Space (pg. 60)
3 Robotics and Autonomous Systems (pg. 60)
4 Synthetic Biology (pg. 61)
5 Regenerative Medicine (pg. 61)
6 Agri-science (pg. 62)
7 Advanced Materials (pg. 62)
8 Energy (pg. 63)
Conclusion: A Date for Your Diary (pg. 65)
5 Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us (pg. 67)
The New Luddite Challenge (pg. 68)
Notes (pg. 85)
6 Sultana’s Dream (pg. 87)
Notes (pg. 94)
II The Relationship Between Technology and Society (pg. 95)
7 Do Machines Make History? (pg. 99)
Notes (pg. 106)
8 The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts (pg. 109)
Technology Studies (pg. 109)
EPOR and SCOT (pg. 112)
The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts (pg. 121)
Conclusion (pg. 128)
Notes (pg. 129)
References (pg. 131)
9 Technological Momentum (pg. 137)
Technological Systems (pg. 139)
EBASCO as a Cause and an Effect (pg. 140)
Gathering Technological Momentum (pg. 140)
Characteristics of Momentum (pg. 141)
Using Momentum (pg. 143)
Conclusion (pg. 143)
Notes (pg. 144)
10 Where Are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts (pg. 147)
Description of a Door (pg. 149)
Delegation to Humans (pg. 151)
Delegation to Nonhumans (pg. 152)
Anthropomorphism (pg. 154)
Built-In Users and Authors (pg. 155)
Figurative and Nonfigurative Characters (pg. 157)
From Nonhumans to Superhumans (pg. 161)
Texts and Machines (pg. 163)
Notes (pg. 168)
References (pg. 171)
11 Gender: The Missing Factor in STS (pg. 173)
Feminist Studies of Science and Technology (pg. 174)
The STS Perspective (pg. 176)
The Importance of Gender (pg. 178)
Notes (pg. 180)
References (pg. 181)
11139_003 (pg. 185)
12 Do Artifacts Have Politics? (pg. 189)
Technical Arrangements and Social Order (pg. 191)
Inherently Political Technologies (pg. 196)
Notes (pg. 202)
13 Control: Human and Nonhuman Robots (pg. 205)
Controlling Employees (pg. 206)
Controlling Customers (pg. 212)
The Ultimate Examples of Control? Birth and Death (pg. 217)
Conclusion (pg. 223)
Notes (pg. 224)
14 White (pg. 229)
Lighting for Whiteness (pg. 230)
Notes (pg. 234)
References (pg. 234)
15 Manufacturing Gender in Commercial and Military Cockpit Design (pg. 237)
Technological Bias in Existing Aircraft (pg. 237)
Technological Bias within Defense Aircraft (pg. 238)
Technological Bias within Commercial Aircraft (pg. 239)
Regulating Accommodation in Defense Aircraft (pg. 241)
Notes (pg. 244)
References (pg. 244)
16 Amish Technology: Reinforcing Values and Building Community (pg. 247)
Amish Community and Values (pg. 250)
Rules That Bind and Nurture (pg. 251)
Ordnung and Amish Change (pg. 252)
Regulating Technological Change (pg. 253)
Regulating Electricity (pg. 255)
Amish Transportation (pg. 255)
“Running About” (pg. 257)
Modern Pressures (pg. 258)
Amish Entrepreneurs (pg. 259)
Line Dividing Home and Work (pg. 261)
Where the Amish Stand Today (pg. 262)
Acknowledgment (pg. 263)
Notes (pg. 263)
References (pg. 264)
17 Preserving Traditional Knowledge: Initiatives in India (pg. 267)
Traditional Knowledge (pg. 267)
Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge (pg. 268)
Traditional Medicinal Knowledge of India (pg. 268)
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) (pg. 269)
Conclusion (pg. 272)
Notes (pg. 273)
18 Equity in Forecasting Climate: Can Science Save the World’s Poor? (pg. 275)
Forecasting Climate and Accounting for Equity (pg. 277)
Impact of Inequality on Equity (pg. 280)
Opportunity Cost of SCF Use (pg. 281)
Concluding Remarks (pg. 282)
Notes (pg. 283)
References (pg. 284)
11139_004 (pg. 287)
19 Sociotechnical Complexity: Redesigning a Shielding Wall (pg. 291)
A Strange Supervisory Board (pg. 292)
A Simple Object in a Complex Environment (pg. 293)
Interactions between Objects (pg. 295)
Technical or Strategic Work? (pg. 296)
Stabilizing What the Neighbors Want (pg. 298)
Operational Summary (pg. 300)
Notes (pg. 301)
20 Fukushima and the Inevitability of Accidents (pg. 303)
Regulations (pg. 304)
Warnings (pg. 306)
Coping (pg. 308)
Funding (pg. 310)
References (pg. 310)
21 Nature as Infrastructure: Making and Managing the Panama Canal Watershed (pg. 311)
Nature as Infrastructure (pg. 313)
Assembling the Panama Canal (pg. 316)
Making the Panama Canal Watershed (pg. 319)
Conclusions (pg. 327)
Acknowledgments (pg. 328)
Notes (pg. 328)
References (pg. 330)
22 Conceptions of Control and IT Artefacts: An Institutional Account of the Amazon Rainforest Monitoring System (pg. 335)
Introduction (pg. 335)
Institutional Theory and IT Artefacts (pg. 336)
Conceptions of Control and Dialectics (pg. 338)
Research Methodology (pg. 339)
The Amazon Rainforest Monitoring System (pg. 339)
Contextualizing the Monitoring System (pg. 341)
Discussion (pg. 345)
Conclusion (pg. 350)
Notes (pg. 351)
References (pg. 351)
23 Franken-Algorithms: The Deadly Consequences of Unpredictable Code (pg. 357)
What Is an Algorithm? (pg. 358)
Clashing Codes (pg. 360)
Real-Life Dangers (pg. 362)
The Military Stakes (pg. 363)
Searching for a Solution (pg. 365)
24 The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food (pg. 367)
“In This Field, I’m a Game Changer.” (pg. 370)
“It’s Called Vanishing Caloric Density.” (pg. 373)
“These People Need a Lot of Things, but They Don’t Need a Coke.” (pg. 377)
Note (pg. 378)
25 The Gender Binary Will Not Be Deprogrammed: Ten Years of Coding Gender on Facebook (pg. 379)
Introduction (pg. 379)
Methods (pg. 381)
Coding Gender, Sociotechnical Problems, and Monetization (pg. 381)
Designing Non-mandatory Gender in Year Zero and Custom Gender in Year Ten (pg. 383)
Binary by Design: Restricting Access to Non-binary Possibilities (pg. 385)
Resisting Control by Hacking Gender (pg. 389)
More Invisible Layers: Surveillance, Authenticity, and Interoperability (pg. 390)
Conclusion (pg. 392)
Acknowledgments (pg. 393)
Funding (pg. 393)
Notes (pg. 393)
References (pg. 394)
26 Audible Citizenship and Audiomobility: Race, Technology, and CB Radio (pg. 397)
Acknowledgment (pg. 409)
Notes (pg. 409)
27 Drones for the Good: Technological Innovations, Social Movements, and the State (pg. 413)
Innovation (pg. 414)
Civil Society Uses (pg. 416)
State Accountability and Conflict (pg. 418)
Frameworks (pg. 419)
Conclusion (pg. 422)
Notes (pg. 423)
V Twenty-First Challenges and Strategies (pg. 429)
28 Engineering the Brain: Ethical Issues and the Introduction of Neural Devices (pg. 433)
Identity (pg. 435)
Normality (pg. 437)
Authority (pg. 438)
Moral and Legal Responsibility (pg. 439)
Privacy (pg. 440)
Justice (pg. 442)
The Beginning of a Discussion (pg. 443)
Acknowledgments (pg. 444)
Disclosure (pg. 444)
Notes (pg. 444)
29 Cyber (In)security: Threat Assessment in the Cyber Domain (pg. 449)
What, When, and Where? (pg. 450)
How? (pg. 451)
Why? (pg. 452)
Three Ways of Being a Hacktivist (pg. 453)
Conventional Warfare (pg. 454)
Unrestricted Warfare (pg. 455)
State-Sponsored Hacktivism as a New Form of Warfare (pg. 457)
Notes (pg. 459)
30 Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation (pg. 463)
Introduction (pg. 464)
Responsible Research and Innovation (pg. 465)
Opening up the “Surprise Room” (pg. 468)
Geoengineering as Planetary Experiment (pg. 469)
Governing Geoengineering Experiments (pg. 471)
From Noun to Verb (pg. 474)
Notes (pg. 476)
References (pg. 476)
31 Seven Principles for Equitable Adaptation (pg. 483)
Climate Change Impacts (pg. 484)
Climate Change Impacts and Equity (pg. 485)
Seven Principles for Equitable Adaptation (pg. 485)
Conclusion (pg. 491)
Notes (pg. 491)
32 Socio-Energy Systems Design: A Policy Framework for Energy Transitions (pg. 501)
1 Introduction (pg. 501)
2 Rethinking Energy Policy as Socio-Energy Systems Design (pg. 503)
3 Case Studies in Socio-Energy Systems Analysis and Design (pg. 507)
4 Bring Socio-Energy System Design into Energy Policy and Governance (pg. 514)
5 Conclusion (pg. 520)
Acknowledgments (pg. 521)
Notes (pg. 521)
References (pg. 521)
33 Debugging Bias: Busting the Myth of Neutral Technology (pg. 527)
34 When Winning Is Losing: Why the Nation That Invented the Computer Lost Its Lead (pg. 531)
Victory from the Jaws of Defeat (pg. 532)
The Girls in the Machine (pg. 532)
Building the Digital Age (pg. 533)
Re-gendering Computing (pg. 534)
Power and Technology (pg. 537)
The Beginning of the End (pg. 538)
Worse Things than Losing (pg. 540)
Notes (pg. 542)
35 Shaping Technology for the “Good Life”: The Technological Imperative versus the Social Imperative (pg. 543)
The Technological Imperative Full Blown—Moore’s Law and Its Distortions (pg. 544)
The Slow-Food Movement in Italy (pg. 547)
Tying It All Together (pg. 551)
Conclusion: A New Bipolarity? (pg. 552)
Note (pg. 554)
References (pg. 554)
36 Not Just One Future (pg. 555)
Notes (pg. 564)
References (pg. 565)
11139_555 (pg. 567)
eTextbook
Go paperless today! Available online anytime, nothing to download or install.
6 months / $27.50
Course access code included