Sustainable Energy, Second Edition

Choosing Among Options

by Testser, Drake, Driscoll, Golay, Peters

ISBN: 9780262305563 | Copyright 2012

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Human survival depends on a continuing supply of energy, but the need for ever-increasing amounts of it poses a dilemma: How can we find energy sources that are sustainable and ways to convert and utilize energy that are more efficient? This widely used textbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as others who have an interest in exploring energy resource options and technologies with a view toward achieving sustainability on local, national, and global scales. It clearly presents the tradeoffs and uncertainties inherent in evaluating and choosing sound energy portfolios and provides a framework for assessing policy solutions.

The second edition examines the broader aspects of energy use, including resource estimation, environmental effects, and economic evaluations; reviews the main energy sources of today and tomorrow, from fossil fuels and nuclear power to biomass, hydropower, and solar energy; treats energy carriers and energy storage, transmission, and distribution; addresses end-use patterns in the transportation, industrial, and building sectors; and considers synergistic complex systems. This new edition also offers updated statistical data and references; a new chapter on the complex interactions among energy, water, and land use; expanded coverage of renewable energy; and new color illustrations. Sustainable Energy addresses the challenges of making responsible energy choices for a more sustainable future.

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Contents (pg. v)
Preface to the First Edition (pg. xix)
Acknowledgments from the First Edition (pg. xxiii)
Preface to the Second Edition: Preface to the Second Edition (pg. xxvii)
Acknowledgments for the Second Edition (pg. xxix)
Chapter 1: Sustainable Energy (pg. 1)
Sustainable Energy: The Engine of Sustainable Development (pg. 2)
The Energy Portfolio (pg. 11)
Defining Energy (pg. 14)
Aspects of Energy Production and Consumption (pg. 20)
National and Global Patterns of Energy Supply and Utilization (pg. 26)
Environmental Effects of Energy (pg. 30)
Confronting the Energy-Prosperity-Environmental Dilemma (pg. 39)
Mathematical Representations of Sustainability (pg. 44)
The Rest of This Book (pg. 46)
Problems (pg. 47)
References (pg. 48)
Chapter 2: Estimation and Evaluation of Energy Resources (pg. 51)
Units of Measurement (pg. 52)
Comparison of Different Forms of Energy (pg. 56)
The Energy Life Cycle (pg. 60)
Estimation and Valuation of Fossil Mineral Fuels, Especially Petroleum (pg. 70)
Estimation and Valuation of Nuclear Fuel Resources (pg. 90)
Estimation and Valuation of Renewable Energy Resources (pg. 92)
Lessons for Sustainable Development (pg. 100)
Summary and Conclusions (pg. 101)
Problems (pg. 102)
References (pg. 103)
Chapter 3: Technical Performance (pg. 107)
The Relation of Technical Performance to Sustainability (pg. 108)
An Introduction to Methods of Thermodynamic Analysis (pg. 110)
The Importance of Rate Processes in Energy Conversion (pg. 136)
Chemical Rate Processes (pg. 138)
The Physical Transport of Heat (pg. 142)
Energy Requirements for Gas Separation Processes (pg. 152)
Use and Abuse of Time Scales (pg. 154)
Energy Resources and Energy Conversion (pg. 155)
Problems (pg. 156)
References (pg. 157)
Chapter 4: Local, Regional, and Global Environmental Effects of Energy (pg. 161)
How Energy Systems Interact with the Environment (pg. 162)
Adverse Environmental Effects over Local and Regional Length Scales (pg. 173)
Global Climate Change (pg. 184)
Attribution of Environmental Damage to Energy Utilization (pg. 216)
Methods of Environmental Protection (pg. 227)
Environmental Benefits of Energy (pg. 233)
Implications for Sustainable Energy (pg. 233)
Appendix: Lessons from SO2 Emissions Trading (pg. 235)
Problems (pg. 239)
References (pg. 242)
Chapter 5: Project Economic Evaluation (pg. 249)
Introduction (pg. 250)
Time Value of Money Mechanics (pg. 252)
Current- versus Constant-Dollar Comparisons (pg. 262)
Simple Payback (pg. 266)
Allowing for Uncertainty (pg. 271)
Accounting for Externalities (pg. 273)
Energy Accounting (pg. 280)
Modeling beyond the Project Level (pg. 282)
Summary (pg. 283)
Appendix: Derivation of Relations for Levelized Cost (pg. 285)
Problems (pg. 286)
References (pg. 290)
Websites of Interest (pg. 292)
Chapter 6: Energy Systems and Sustainability Metrics (pg. 293)
Introduction and Historical Notes (pg. 293)
Energy from a Systems Perspective (pg. 298)
Systems Analysis Approaches (pg. 306)
Measures of Sustainability (pg. 317)
Drivers of Societal Change (pg. 322)
Some General Principles of Sustainable Development (pg. 325)
Problems (pg. 328)
References (pg. 329)
Websites of Interest (pg. 332)
Chapter 7: Energy, Water, and Land Use (pg. 333)
Linkages between Energy, Water, and Land Use (pg. 333)
Major Systems, Interactions, and Trends (pg. 336)
Major Planetary Cycles (pg. 339)
Overview of Land-Use Issues (pg. 351)
Overview of Ocean-Use Issues (pg. 360)
Implications for Sustainable Energy (pg. 366)
Problems (pg. 368)
References (pg. 369)
Websites of Interest (pg. 371)
Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels and Fossil Energy (pg. 373)
Introduction (pg. 374)
The Fossil-Fuel Resource Base (pg. 381)
Harvesting Energy and Energy Products from Fossil Fuels (pg. 384)
Environmental Impacts (pg. 409)
Geopolitical and Sociological Factors (pg. 418)
Economics of Fossil Energy (pg. 423)
Some Principles for Evaluating Fossil and Other Energy Technology Options (pg. 429)
Emerging Technologies (pg. 435)
Conclusion (pg. 442)
Problems (pg. 443)
References (pg. 443)
Chapter 9: Nuclear Power (pg. 447)
Nuclear History (pg. 448)
Physics (pg. 450)
Nuclear Reactors (pg. 451)
Burning and Breeding (pg. 454)
Nuclear Power Economics (pg. 455)
Nuclear Power Plant Accidents (pg. 457)
Reactor Safety (pg. 464)
Nuclear Reactor Technologies (pg. 466)
Actinide Burning (pg. 479)
Advanced Reactors (pg. 481)
Nuclear Power Fuel Resources (pg. 481)
Fuel Cycle (pg. 482)
Fusion Energy (pg. 492)
Future Prospects for Nuclear Power (pg. 499)
Problems (pg. 500)
References (pg. 500)
Additional Resources (pg. 502)
Chapter 10: Biomass Energy (pg. 503)
Characterizing the Biomass Resource (pg. 504)
Biomass Relevance to Energy Production (pg. 510)
Chemical and Physical Properties Relevant to Energy Production (pg. 517)
Biofuels Production (pg. 520)
Thermal Conversion of Biomass (pg. 521)
Bioconversion (pg. 528)
Environmental Issues (pg. 532)
Economics (pg. 535)
Research and Development Opportunities (pg. 536)
Disruptive Technology (pg. 537)
Summary (pg. 540)
Problems (pg. 540)
References (pg. 541)
Websites of Interest (pg. 544)
Chapter 11: Geothermal Energy (pg. 545)
Characterization of Geothermal Resource Types (pg. 546)
Geothermal Resource Size and Distribution (pg. 558)
Practical Operation and Equipment for Recovering Energy (pg. 563)
Sustainability Attributes (pg. 583)
Status of Geothermal Technology Today (pg. 588)
Competing in Today’s Energy Markets (pg. 604)
Research and Development Advances Needed (pg. 607)
Potential for the Long Term (pg. 609)
Problems (pg. 610)
References (pg. 612)
Websites of Interest (pg. 618)
Chapter 12: Hydropower (pg. 619)
Overview of Hydropower (pg. 619)
Hydropower Resource Assessment (pg. 622)
Basic Energy Conversion Principles (pg. 625)
Conversion Equipment and Civil Engineering Operations (pg. 628)
Sustainability Attributes (pg. 632)
Status of Hydropower Technology Today (pg. 636)
Problems (pg. 640)
References (pg. 641)
Websites of Interest (pg. 643)
Chapter 13: Solar Energy (pg. 645)
General Characteristics of Solar Energy (pg. 646)
Resource Assessment (pg. 647)
Passive and Active Solar Thermal Energy for Buildings (pg. 656)
Solar Thermal Electric Systems (pg. 665)
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems (pg. 677)
Sustainability Attributes (pg. 689)
Summary and Prognosis (pg. 691)
Problems (pg. 692)
References (pg. 694)
Websites of Interest (pg. 696)
Chapter 14: Ocean Wave, Tide, Current, and Thermal Energy Conversion (pg. 697)
Introduction (pg. 697)
Energy from the Tides and Currents (pg. 700)
Energy from the Waves (pg. 704)
Energy from Temperature Differences (pg. 708)
Economic Prospects (pg. 712)
Environmental and Sustainability Considerations (pg. 714)
The Ocean as an Externalities Sink (pg. 715)
Current Status and Future Prospects (pg. 715)
Appendix: Constants and Conversion Factors (pg. 716)
Problems (pg. 717)
References (pg. 718)
Websites of Interest (pg. 720)
Chapter 15: Wind Energy (pg. 721)
Introduction and Historical Notes (pg. 722)
Wind Resources (pg. 726)
Wind Machinery and Generating Systems (pg. 736)
Wind-Turbine Rating (pg. 741)
Wind-Power Economics (pg. 742)
Measures of Sustainability (pg. 745)
Current Status and Future Prospects (pg. 748)
Appendix: Conversion Factors Relevant to Wind Power (pg. 751)
Problems (pg. 752)
References (pg. 754)
Websites of Interest (pg. 755)
Chapter 16: Energy Carriers (pg. 757)
Introduction and Historical Perspectives (pg. 757)
Electricity as an Energy Carrier (pg. 770)
Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier (pg. 782)
Sustainability Issues (pg. 792)
Problems (pg. 796)
References (pg. 797)
Websites of Interest (pg. 798)
Chapter 17: Energy Management (pg. 799)
Overview of Energy Management Systems (pg. 800)
Connected Efficiencies and Energy Chains (pg. 805)
Modes of Energy Storage (pg. 808)
Energy Transmission (pg. 827)
Energy Distribution Systems (pg. 837)
Ways of Organizing the Electric Economy (pg. 842)
Energy Market Impacts on Electricity Generation Options (pg. 851)
Sustainability Attributes (pg. 854)
Opportunities for Advancement of Sustainable Energy Infrastructures (pg. 856)
Problems (pg. 857)
References (pg. 860)
Websites of Interest (pg. 862)
Chapter 18: Transportation Services (pg. 865)
Introduction and Historical Perspectives (pg. 865)
Elements of the Transportation System (pg. 874)
Transportation Fuels and the Fuel Cycle (pg. 877)
Personal Vehicles (pg. 882)
Life-Cycle Comparison of Vehicle Alternatives for Passenger Road Transport (pg. 887)
Freight Vehicles (pg. 894)
Public Transit, Interurban, and Intercontinental Transport (pg. 896)
Motorization Trends (pg. 899)
Sustainability Issues (pg. 901)
Problems (pg. 903)
References (pg. 903)
Websites of Interest (pg. 905)
Chapter 19: Industrial Energy Usage (pg. 907)
Introduction and Historical Perspectives (pg. 907)
Life-Cycle Analysis and Design for Sustainability (pg. 911)
Metals Industries (pg. 914)
Cement and Lime Industries (pg. 916)
Chemical Industries (pg. 917)
Forest Products and Agriculture (pg. 919)
Waste Management Industries (pg. 920)
Sustainability Issues (pg. 921)
Problems (pg. 925)
References (pg. 925)
Websites of Interest (pg. 926)
Chapter 20: Commercial and Residential Buildings (pg. 927)
Introduction and Historical Perspectives (pg. 927)
Life-Cycle Analysis (pg. 931)
Residential Buildings (pg. 936)
Commercial Buildings (pg. 941)
Indoor Air Quality (pg. 947)
Sustainability Issues (pg. 948)
Problems (pg. 950)
References (pg. 950)
Websites of Interest (pg. 951)
Chapter 21: Synergistic Complex Systems (pg. 953)
Introduction and Historical Notes (pg. 954)
The Complex Systems View (pg. 957)
Some Case Studies (pg. 969)
Transitional Pathways (pg. 980)
The Challenge to Society (pg. 989)
Problems (pg. 992)
References (pg. 993)
Websites of Interest (pg. 995)
Chapter 22: Choosing among Options (pg. 997)
Conversion Factors (pg. 1001)
List of Acronyms (pg. 1005)
Index (pg. 1011)
Color Plates (pg. 1021)

Jefferson W. Testser

Jefferson W. Tester is Croll Professor of Sustainable Energy Systems at Cornell University.

Elisabeth M. Drake

Elisabeth M. Drake is Emeritus Researcher at the MIT Energy Initiative.

Michael J. Driscoll

Michael J. Driscoll is Professor Emeritus of Nuclear Science and Engineering at MIT.

Michael W. Golay

Michael W. Golay is Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering at MIT.

Willam A. Peters

William A. Peters is Executive Director of the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT.

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