## Phonology

by Bale, Reiss

### Instructor Requests

An introduction to generative phonology using tools of basic set theory, logic, and combinatorics.

This textbook introduces phonological theory as a branch of cognitive science for students with minimal background in linguistics. The authors use basic math and logic, including set theory, some rules of inference, and basic combinatorics, to explain phonology, and use phonology to teach the math and logic. The text is unique in its focus on logical analysis, its use of toy data, and its provision of some interpretation rules for its phonological rule syntax.

The book's eight parts cover preliminary and background material; the motivation for phonological rules; the development of a formal model for phonological rules; the basic logic of neutralization rules; the traditional notions of allophony and complementary distribution; the logic of rule interaction, presented in terms of function composition; a survey of such issues as length, tone, syllabification, and metathesis; and features and feature logic, with a justification of decomposing segments into features and treating segments as sets of (valued) features. End-of-chapter exercises help students apply the concepts presented. Much of the discussion and many of the exercises rely on toy data, but more “real” data is included toward the end of the book. Exercises available online can be used as homework or in-class quizzes.

Expand/Collapse All
Contents (pg. vii)
Acknowledgments (pg. xvii)
I. Preliminaries (pg. 1)
1. Phonology and Theoretical Neuroscience (pg. 3)
Exercises (pg. 5)
2. Language as Knowledge (pg. 7)
2.1 A Grim Scenario: Introducing I-Language (pg. 7)
2.2 Innateness and Universal Grammar (pg. 9)
2.3 Abstract Knowledge (pg. 10)
3. Apologia (pg. 13)
Exercises (pg. 18)
4 Formalism with Sets (pg. 19)
4.1 Formalisms: A Justification (pg. 19)
4.2 Sets (pg. 21)
4.3 Sets and Relations (pg. 22)
4.4 Set Operations and Special Sets (pg. 28)
4.5 Intensional versus Extensional Definitions (pg. 32)
4.6 Functions (pg. 34)
4.7 Set Cardinality (pg. 37)
4.8 Ordered Sets (pg. 38)
Exercises (pg. 39)
II. The Motivation for Phonological Rules (pg. 45)
6. Segmentation: Sound and Meaning (pg. 47)
6.1 Do We Need Phonology? (pg. 47)
6.2 Methods of Segmentation (pg. 48)
6.3 The Lexicon (pg. 53)
Exercises (pg. 56)
7. Rules: Yet Another Module of Grammar (pg. 57)
7.1 Two Forms, One Meaning (pg. 57)
7.2 In Search of an Explanation (pg. 61)
7.3 Phonological Rules and Morphemes (pg. 65)
7.4 Derivation Tables (pg. 67)
Exercises (pg. 70)
8. Review (pg. 73)
III. A Formal Model for Phonological Rules (pg. 75)
9. Formalization (pg. 77)
9.1 Smurfs and Science (pg. 77)
9.2 Expressibility (pg. 79)
10. Formalizing Phonological Rules (pg. 83)
10.1 Functions on Strings (pg. 83)
10.2 A More Constrained Approach to Phonological Functions (pg. 85)
10.3 SPE System (pg. 87)
10.4 Expressibility in SPE (pg. 89)
10.5 Useless Rules (pg. 91)
Exercises (pg. 93)
11. Interpreting Phonological Rules (pg. 95)
11.1 Directionality in Rule Application (pg. 96)
11.2 A More Realistic Example (pg. 98)
Exercises (pg. 101)
12. The Semantics of SPE Phonological Rules (pg. 103)
12.1 Semantics for IPA Symbols (pg. 104)
12.2 Semantics for SPE Rules (pg. 106)
12.3 Optional: Sketch of an Alternative Semantics (pg. 108)
Exercises (pg. 111)
IV. The Logic of Neutralization (pg. 113)
13. Introducing Neutralization (pg. 115)
13.1 Taking Stock (pg. 115)
13.2 Neutralization: A Dataset (pg. 117)
14. Choosing Lexical Forms (pg. 119)
14.1 Implicit Assumptions (pg. 119)
14.2 Modus Tollendo Ponens (MTP) (pg. 121)
14.3 Presenting a Phonological Solution (pg. 124)
Exercises (pg. 127)
15. Nothing I: No Morpheme versus No Phonology (pg. 131)
16. Nothing II: Enhancing Rule Environments for Nothing (pg. 137)
16.1 Before and After Nothing (pg. 137)
16.2 Expanding Rule Environments (pg. 139)
16.3 Interpreting the Environment (pg. 143)
Exercises (pg. 146)
17. Nothing III: Something for Nothing (pg. 149)
17.1 Insertion and Deletion (pg. 149)
17.2 Expressing Insertion and Deletion in Words (pg. 152)
Exercises (pg. 154)
18. The Semantics of Segment Insertion and Deletion (pg. 155)
18.1 Ordering of Segment Strings (pg. 155)
18.2 Ordering and Segment Tokens (pg. 156)
18.3 Deletion Functions (pg. 159)
18.4 Insertion Functions (pg. 162)
18.5 Old Rules Revisited (pg. 164)
Exercises (pg. 166)
19. Segment Mapping Diagrams (pg. 167)
19.1 SMD for Neutralization (pg. 168)
19.2 SMDs Involving ϵ (pg. 170)
Exercises (pg. 172)
20. Refining Neutralization (pg. 173)
20.1 Neutralizations as Many-to-One Mappings (pg. 173)
20.2 Why Is the Analysis of Neutralization Challenging? (pg. 175)
20.3 Neutralization by a Set of Rules (pg. 178)
21. Some Neutralization Patterns (pg. 181)
21.1 Multiple Neutralization in One Context (pg. 181)
21.2 Multiple Convergent Neutralization in Korean (pg. 184)
21.3 Overlapping Neutralizations (pg. 186)
21.4 Overlapping Neutralizations with ϵ (pg. 188)
21.5 Reciprocal Neutralization (pg. 190)
21.6 Non-surfacing Segments in URs (pg. 191)
21.7 Combined Neutralization (pg. 195)
22. Neutralization Exercises (pg. 201)
V. The Logic of Allophony (pg. 209)
23. Splits without Neutralization (pg. 211)
24. Rules as Generalizations (pg. 215)
24.1 Simplicity and Generalizations (pg. 216)
24.2 Environments Define Equivalence Classes (pg. 219)
24.3 Counting Environments (pg. 223)
24.4 Another Peek at Natural Classes (pg. 224)
25. Allophones (pg. 227)
25.1 Allophony versus Neutralization (pg. 227)
25.2 Set Complements and Complementary Distribution (pg. 230)
25.3 Allophones Again (pg. 234)
25.4 Korean and the Status of Allophones (pg. 235)
26. More on Distributional Patterns and Phonotactics (pg. 239)
26.1 Distributional Patterns (pg. 239)
26.2 Phonotactics (pg. 243)
Exercises (pg. 245)
27. Confused Use of Complementary Distribution in Syntax (pg. 247)
VI. The Logic of Rule Interaction (pg. 249)
28. Function Composition (pg. 251)
28.1 Order (Sometimes) Matters (pg. 251)
28.2 Demonstration of Rule Ordering (pg. 254)
Exercises (pg. 256)
29. Rule Interactions I: Feeding (pg. 259)
29.1 Feeding: The Basic Pattern (pg. 259)
29.2 Defining Feeding (pg. 262)
29.3 A Non-ordering Solution: The Free Reapplication Model (pg. 264)
29.4 Neutralization and Homophony (pg. 266)
29.5 Complex SMDs (pg. 266)
30. Rule Interactions II: Counterfeeding (pg. 269)
30.1 Counterfeeding: The Basic Pattern (pg. 269)
30.2 Rule Ordering for Strelitzian (pg. 270)
30.3 Direct Mapping for Strelitzian (pg. 272)
30.4 Choosing a Model (pg. 273)
30.5 More Complex SMDs (pg. 275)
Exercises (pg. 275)
31. Combinatorics of Rule Ordering (pg. 277)
Exercises (pg. 280)
32. Minimal Pairs and Complementary Distribution (pg. 281)
33. Rule Interactions III: Bleeding and Counterbleeding (pg. 287)
33.1 Bleeding (pg. 287)
33.2 Counterbleeding (pg. 290)
Exercises (pg. 292)
34. Alternative Analyses (pg. 299)
Exercises (pg. 301)
35. Getting Ready to Expand SPE (pg. 303)
VII. Suprasegmental Phonology (pg. 305)
36. Metathesis (pg. 307)
37. Length (pg. 313)
37.1 The Abstractness of Phonological Length (pg. 315)
37.2 Representing Length (pg. 318)
Exercises (pg. 320)
38. Tone (pg. 323)
39. Syllables I (pg. 327)
39.1 Discovering Syllables (pg. 327)
39.2 Syllables as Hierarchical Structures (pg. 330)
39.3 Intrasyllable Relations in Rules (pg. 333)
39.4 Intersyllable Relations in Rules (pg. 337)
Exercises (pg. 339)
40. Syllables II (pg. 343)
40.1 Syllable Types (pg. 343)
40.2 Inferring Syllable Structure (pg. 348)
40.3 Reasoning about Syllable Structure (pg. 350)
Exercises (pg. 354)
41. Stress (pg. 361)
41.1 Fixed Stress (pg. 362)
41.2 Lexical Stress (pg. 362)
41.3 Weight and Stress (pg. 364)
41.4 Computing Stress with Feet (pg. 365)
Exercise (pg. 369)
VIII. Features and Feature Logic (pg. 371)
42. Substrings and Sets of Strings (pg. 373)
43. Beyond Perfect Datasets: What Can We Ignore? (pg. 375)
43.1 Equivalence Classes in Rules via Substrings (pg. 375)
43.2 Natural Classes of Segments in Rule Environments (pg. 378)
43.3 Natural Classes of Segments in Rule Targets (pg. 380)
44. Using Properties in Rules (pg. 385)
45. More on Rules with Properties (pg. 391)
45.1 Natural Classes Defined by Generalized Intersection (pg. 391)
45.2 Natural Classes and Epistemic Boundedness (pg. 396)
45.3 Properties and the ‘is-a’ Relation (pg. 398)
45.4 Rules Refer to Natural Classes (pg. 398)
Exercises (pg. 400)
46. A Binary Model of Segment Properties (pg. 401)
47. The Features We’ll Use (pg. 407)
47.1 Vowels (pg. 408)
47.2 Consonants (pg. 412)
48. Natural Classes with Features (pg. 419)
48.1 Rules with Natural Classes of Features (pg. 419)
48.2 More on Features and Segments (pg. 422)
Exercises (pg. 425)
49. Building, Then Deconstructing, a Feature-Based Rule (pg. 431)
49.1 Using Features with '→' (pg. 431)
49.2 Deconstructing ‘→’: Two Steps to Devoicing (pg. 433)
49.3 Segment Mapping Diagrams and the Two-Step Process (pg. 438)
50. Failure of Minimal Pairs (pg. 441)
Exercises (pg. 446)
51. Reciprocal Neutralization Revisited (pg. 449)
51.1 Hungarian Voicing Assimilation (pg. 449)
51.2 Expressing “The Same Value" (pg. 451)
51.3 Expressing “The Opposite Value" (pg. 452)
51.4 A Two-Step Analysis of Hungarian Reciprocal Neutralization (pg. 453)
51.5 No “Existential” α (pg. 454)
Exercises (pg. 455)
52. Nothing IV: Non-surfacing URs Revisited (pg. 457)
Exercise (pg. 463)
53. Turkish Vowel Harmony I (pg. 465)
Exercises (pg. 474)
54. Discussion: Surface Segments and SMDs (pg. 475)
Exercises (pg. 477)
55. Turkish Vowel Harmony II (pg. 481)
Exercise (pg. 488)
56. Turkish Vowel Harmony III (pg. 489)
Exercises (pg. 495)
57. Greek Letter Variables and Quantification in Rules (pg. 499)
57.1 Further Thoughts on Greek Letters (pg. 499)
57.2 Identity Conditions in Rules (pg. 501)
57.3 Non-identity Conditions in Rules (pg. 509)
Exercises (pg. 513)
58. Applying What We Have Learned—Lamba (pg. 521)
Exercises (pg. 526)
59. High Quality Ignorance (pg. 529)
59.1 Overview of the Data (pg. 530)
59.2 First Analysis: Two Aspirating Rules (pg. 531)
59.3 Second Analysis: One Aspirating Rule (pg. 533)
59.4 The Benefits of Commitment (pg. 535)
Exercises (pg. 536)
60 The Remote and Complex Phonology of the English Plural (pg. 539)
60.1 The Extension of the Target: A Toy Example (pg. 540)
60.2 The Extension of the Environment: The English Plural (pg. 542)
61. Combinatorics and the Plausibility of Universal Grammar (pg. 549)
61.1 Power Sets (pg. 551)
61.2 Combinatorics of the Universal Segment Inventory (pg. 553)
61.3 Combinatoric Explosion of the Set of Segment Inventories (pg. 557)
61.4 Combinatoric Explosion via Rule Syntax (pg. 560)
61.5 Combinatoric Explosion of the Lexicon (pg. 561)
61.6 Cellular Automata Illustration of Tone Combinatorics (pg. 562)
61.7 The Bright Side of Combinatoric Explosion (pg. 565)
Exercises (pg. 567)
62. Postscript (pg. 569)
Exercises (pg. 571)
Bibliography (pg. 573)
Index (pg. 583)

#### Alan Bale

Alan Bale is Associate Professor in the Program in Linguistics at Concordia University, Montreal.

#### Charles Reiss

Charles Reiss is Professor in the Program in Linguistics at Concordia University, Montreal. He is the coauthor of I-Language: An Introduction to Linguistics as Cognitive Science and The Phonological Enterprise.

eTextbook