Modern HF Signal Detection and Direction Finding

by Sklar

ISBN: 9780262347679 | Copyright 0

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Detailed descriptions of detection, direction-finding, and signal-estimation methods, using consistent formalisms and notation, emphasizing HF antenna array sensing applications.

Adaptive antenna array technology encompasses many powerful interference suppression approaches that exploit spatial differences among signals reaching a radio receiver system. Today, worldwide propagation phenomenology occurring in the High Frequency (HF) radio regime has made such interference common. In this book, Jay Sklar, a longtime researcher at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, presents detailed descriptions of detection, direction-finding, and signal-estimation methods applicable at HF, using consistent formalisms and notation. Modern electronic system technology has made many of these techniques affordable and practical; the goal of the book is to offer practicing engineers a comprehensive and self-contained reference that will encourage more widespread application of these approaches.

The book is based on the author's thirty years of managing MIT Lincoln Laboratory work on the application of adaptive antenna array technologies to the sensing of HF communication signals. After an overview of HF propagation phenomenology, communication signal formats, and HF receiver architectural approaches, Sklar describes the HF propagation environment in more detail; introduces important modulation approaches and signaling protocols used at HF; discusses HF receiver system architectural features; and addresses signal processor architecture and its implementation. He then presents the technical foundation for the book: the vector model for a signal received at an adaptive array antenna. He follows this with discussions of actual signal processing techniques for detection and direction finding, including specific direction-finding algorithms; geolocation techniques; and signal estimation.

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Contents (pg. v)
List of Figures (pg. ix)
List of Tables (pg. xv)
Preface (pg. xvii)
About the Author (pg. xix)
1. Introduction (pg. 1)
1.1 Overview (pg. 1)
1.2 High-Frequency Propagation (pg. 4)
1.3 HF Band Utilization (pg. 6)
1.4 Motivations for Adaptive Antenna Array Application at HF (pg. 6)
1.5 Overall Plan of the Book (pg. 7)
References (pg. 9)
2. HF Propagation Physics and Its Effect on Signals (pg. 11)
2.1 Ionospheric Medium (pg. 11)
2.2 Wave Propagation in the Ionosphere (pg. 18)
2.3 HF Noise Environment (pg. 46)
2.4 Diurnal Variations (pg. 48)
References (pg. 49)
3. Common HF Modulation Protocols (pg. 51)
3.1 Introduction (pg. 51)
3.2 Analog Signal Modulation Alternatives (pg. 54)
3.3 Digital Modulation Approaches (pg. 61)
3.4 Binary Phase-Shift Keying (pg. 66)
3.5 HF Modem Design (pg. 75)
3.6 Government Standards (pg. 77)
3.7 Summary (pg. 84)
3.8 Appendix: Morse Code (pg. 84)
References (pg. 86)
4. HF Receiver Architectural Approaches (pg. 89)
4.1 Overview (pg. 89)
4.2 Architecture Options (pg. 90)
4.3 Image Control (pg. 100)
4.4 Analog-to-Digital Converters: Issues and Performance (pg. 104)
References (pg. 116)
5. HF Array-Processing Architecture (pg. 117)
5.1 Detection (pg. 117)
5.2 Direction Finding (pg. 120)
5.3 Copy (pg. 122)
5.4 Reconstruction (pg. 124)
5.5 Signal Sorting (pg. 125)
5.6 Geolocation (pg. 127)
References (pg. 129)
6. Vector Models for Adaptive Array Signals (pg. 131)
6.1 Overview (pg. 131)
6.2 Array Signal Model (pg. 132)
6.3 Ideal Propagation Model (pg. 134)
6.4 A Simple Example (pg. 137)
6.5 Beam Formation (pg. 141)
6.6 Weight Vector Computation (pg. 142)
6.7 Polarization-Sensitive Arrays (pg. 144)
References (pg. 149)
7. Signal Detection Processing (pg. 151)
7.1 Overview (pg. 151)
7.2 HF Environmental Detection Issues (pg. 153)
7.3 Likelihood Ratio Detection (pg. 155)
7.4 Perturbation Discovery (pg. 159)
7.5 Temporally Oriented Detection (pg. 176)
7.6 Spectrally Oriented Detection (pg. 178)
7.7 High-Order Statistics (pg. 180)
References (pg. 182)
8. Array Evaluation: Direction Finding Performance Bounds (pg. 185)
8.1 Overview (pg. 185)
8.2 Value of Bounds (pg. 186)
8.3 Cramer-Rao Bound (pg. 192)
8.4 Minimum Mean Square Error Bound (pg. 198)
8.5 Weiss-Weinstein Bound (pg. 199)
8.6 HF Array Geometry (pg. 201)
8.7 Some Common HF Antenna Examples (pg. 211)
References (pg. 216)
9. Direction Finding Techniques for HF Applications (pg. 217)
9.1 Overview (pg. 217)
9.2 Interferometry: Phase Fitting (pg. 217)
9.3 Maximum Likelihood Approach to LOB Estimation (pg. 220)
9.4 The Vector Space Approach—The MUSIC Algorithm (pg. 225)
9.5 Direction Finding with Polarization-Sensitive Arrays (pg. 231)
9.6 Feature-Based Methods (pg. 238)
9.7 Eigenvector Rotation (pg. 244)
References (pg. 246)
10. Geolocation Techniques (pg. 249)
10.1 Overview (pg. 249)
10.2 Multisensor Angle-Only Geolocation (pg. 250)
10.3 Single-Site Geolocation (pg. 256)
10.4 Mode Differential Geolocation (pg. 259)
10.5 Multisite Differential Time-of-Arrival Geolocation (pg. 265)
References (pg. 267)
11. Copy: Steering Vector Methods (pg. 269)
11.1 Overview (pg. 269)
11.2 MSE Beamformer (pg. 270)
11.3 Steering Vector-Based Copy (pg. 271)
11.4 MUSIC-Based Copy (pg. 273)
11.5 Polarization-Based Methods (pg. 277)
11.6 Copy Weight Tracking (pg. 279)
11.7 Wideband Processing (pg. 282)
References (pg. 287)
12. Copy: Feature Exploitation Methods (pg. 289)
12.1 Overview (pg. 289)
12.2 Carrier-Based Nulling (pg. 290)
12.3 Rate Line–Based Approaches (pg. 297)
12.4 Constant Modulus Processing (pg. 306)
12.5 Spectral Difference Processing (pg. 309)
12.6 On-Off Keyed Signals (pg. 319)
12.7 Radar Signals (pg. 324)
12.8 Voice-Modulated Signals (pg. 330)
Index (pg. 341)

Jay R. Sklar

Jay R. Sklar is Senior Staff Member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory.

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