Foundations in Music Psychology

Theory and Research

ISBN: 9780262039277 | Copyright 0

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A state-of-the-art overview of the latest theory and research in music psychology, written by leaders in the field.

This authoritative, landmark volume offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the latest theory and research in music perception and cognition. Eminent scholars from a range of disciplines, employing a variety of methodologies, describe important findings from core areas of the field, including music cognition, the neuroscience of music, musical performance, and music therapy. The book can be used as a textbook for courses in music cognition, auditory perception, science of music, psychology of music, philosophy of music, and music therapy, and as a reference for researchers, teachers, and musicians.

The book's sections cover music perception; music cognition; music, neurobiology, and evolution; musical training, ability, and performance; and musical experience in everyday life. Chapters treat such topics as pitch, rhythm, and timbre; musical expectancy, musicality, musical disorders, and absolute pitch; brain processes involved in music perception, cross-species studies of music cognition, and music across cultures; improvisation, the assessment of musical ability, and singing; and music and emotions, musical preferences, and music therapy.

Contributors
Fleur Bouwer, Peter Cariani, Laura K. Cirelli, Annabel J. Cohen, Lola L. Cuddy, Shannon de L'Etoile, Jessica A. Grahn, David M. Greenberg, Bruno Gringas, Henkjan Honing, Lorna S. Jakobson, Ji Chul Kim, Stefan Koelsch, Edward W. Large, Miriam Lense, Daniel Levitin, Charles J. Limb, Psyche Loui, Stephen McAdams, Lucy M. McGarry, Malinda J. McPherson, Andrew J. Oxenham, Caroline Palmer, Aniruddh Patel, Eve-Marie Quintin, Peter Jason Rentfrow, Edward Roth, Frank A. Russo, Rebecca Scheurich, Kai Siedenburg, Avital Sternin, Yanan Sun, William F. Thompson, Renee Timmers, Mark Jude Tramo, Sandra E. Trehub, Michael W. Weiss, Marcel Zentner

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Contents (pg. v)
I. Music Perception (pg. 1)
1. Pitch: Perception and Neural Coding (pg. 3)
Introduction (pg. 3)
Pitch of Pure Tones (pg. 4)
Pitch of Complex Tones (pg. 8)
Multiple Pitches in Chords (pg. 16)
Interactions between Pitch and Other Sensory Dimensions and Processes (pg. 21)
Conclusions (pg. 24)
References (pg. 25)
2. Rhythm (pg. 33)
1. Introduction (pg. 33)
2. Overview: Decomposing the Rhythmic Signal (pg. 35)
3. Structure and Interpretation: Visualizing Rhythm Space (pg. 37)
4. Rhythmic Pattern: Representation (pg. 39)
5. Rhythmic Pattern and Timing: Categorization (pg. 40)
6. Tempo and Timing: Perceptual Invariance (pg. 47)
7. Metrical Structure: Syncopation (pg. 48)
8. Metrical Structure: Theories of Metrical Perception (pg. 49)
9. General Mechanisms of Time Perception: Absolute and Relative Timing (pg. 53)
10. Metrical Structure: Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Metrical Perception (pg. 54)
11. Metrical Structure and Rhythm: Probing Beat Perception Using ERPs (pg. 56)
12. Epilogue (pg. 58)
13. Acknowledgments (pg. 59)
Notes (pg. 59)
References (pg. 59)
3. Perception and Cognition of Musical Timbre (pg. 71)
Psychophysics of Timbre (pg. 72)
Timbre Space (pg. 73)
Audio Descriptors of Timbral Dimensions (pg. 79)
Interaction of Timbre with Pitch and Dynamics (pg. 86)
Absolute and Relative Perception of Timbre (pg. 87)
Memory for Timbre (pg. 93)
Timbre as a Structuring Force in Music Perception (pg. 97)
Neuroscientific Studies of Timbre (pg. 106)
Concluding Remarks (pg. 109)
Acknowledgments (pg. 111)
Notes (pg. 111)
References (pg. 111)
4. Pitch Combinations and Grouping (pg. 121)
Simultaneous Pitch Combinations (pg. 121)
Surface-Level Features in Sequential Pitch Combinations (pg. 125)
Sequential Pitch Groupings (pg. 129)
Pitch Hierarchies (pg. 136)
Conclusion (pg. 141)
Acknowledgments (pg. 142)
Notes (pg. 142)
References (pg. 142)
5. Musical Intervals, Scales, and Tunings: Auditory Representations and Neural Codes (pg. 149)
Introduction (pg. 149)
Scales and Tuning Systems (pg. 165)
Auditory Neural Models (pg. 182)
Temporal Models for Consonance and Harmony (pg. 195)
Conclusions (pg. 204)
Acknowledgments (pg. 206)
Notes (pg. 206)
References (pg. 208)
II. Music Cognition (pg. 219)
6. Musical Expectancy (pg. 221)
Harmonic Expectation (pg. 221)
Melodic Expectation (pg. 233)
Temporal Expectation (pg. 237)
Perspective (pg. 245)
Bibliography (pg. 246)
7. Musicality across the Lifespan (pg. 265)
Social Role of Music (pg. 265)
Temporal Processing (pg. 271)
Pitch Processing (pg. 278)
Concluding Comments and Questions (pg. 284)
Acknowledgments (pg. 286)
References (pg. 286)
8. Amusias and Other Disorders Affecting Musicality (pg. 305)
Introduction (pg. 305)
Recent History of Systematic Studies of Musical Disorders (pg. 306)
Conceptual and Empirical Approaches to Amusia Research (pg. 307)
Stroke, Epilepsy, and Brain Damage Induced Amusia and Musical Disorders (pg. 309)
Musicogenic Epilepsy (pg. 320)
Sudden Savant Syndrome (pg. 323)
Musical Anhedonia (pg. 325)
Congenital Amusia (pg. 326)
Williams Syndrome (pg. 332)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (pg. 335)
Concluding Remarks (pg. 339)
References (pg. 340)
9. Absolute Pitch (pg. 357)
Introduction (pg. 357)
History (pg. 359)
Etiology and Acquisition (pg. 362)
Implicit and Residual AP Ability (pg. 369)
Methodological Issues (pg. 374)
Genetics (pg. 376)
Neuroanatomy (pg. 377)
Phenomenology (pg. 380)
Information Processing Perspective, Models (pg. 382)
Myths, Misunderstandings, and Unanswered Questions (pg. 387)
Conclusion (pg. 393)
Acknowledgments (pg. 393)
References (pg. 393)
III. Evolutionary Bases of Music (pg. 405)
10. Music and the Brain (pg. 407)
Introduction (pg. 407)
Auditory Feature Extraction (pg. 408)
Echoic Memory and Gestalt Formation (pg. 412)
Processing of Phrase Boundaries (pg. 414)
Analysis of Intervals and Chords (pg. 415)
Musical Expectancy Formation: Processing of Local Dependencies (pg. 416)
Musical Structure Building: Processing of Nonlocal Dependencies (pg. 418)
Interactions between Language- and Music-Syntactic Processing (pg. 424)
Structural Reanalysis and Repair (pg. 427)
Processing Meaning in Music (pg. 429)
How the Body Reacts to Music (pg. 436)
Music Perception and Memory (pg. 438)
Music and Language (pg. 439)
Notes (pg. 442)
References (pg. 443)
11. Evolutionary Music Cognition: Cross-Species Studies (pg. 459)
Introduction (pg. 459)
Darwin’s Views on the Phylogeny of Musicality (pg. 461)
Octave Equivalence (pg. 463)
Recognition of Transposed Tone Sequences (pg. 469)
Predictive and Flexible Synchronization to an Auditory Beat (pg. 478)
Auditory Beat Perception (pg. 484)
Other Areas of Interest for Cross-Species Research (pg. 488)
Conclusion (pg. 489)
Acknowledgments (pg. 490)
Note (pg. 490)
References (pg. 490)
12. Music across Cultures (pg. 503)
Music as a Cross-Cultural Construct (pg. 504)
The Construct of Culture (pg. 505)
Comparative Musicology (pg. 506)
Cross-Cultural Music Cognition (pg. 508)
Cognitive Constraints, Early Predispositions, Genetic Influences, and Universals (pg. 509)
Behavioral Studies of Cross-Cultural Music Cognition (pg. 512)
Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches (pg. 522)
Psychological Models of Similarities and Differences in Musical Cultures (pg. 523)
Concluding Remarks (pg. 533)
Acknowledgments (pg. 534)
References (pg. 534)
IV. Musical Training, Ability, and Performance (pg. 543)
13. Improvisation: Experimental Considerations, Results, and Future Directions (pg. 545)
Improvisation: Definitions (pg. 545)
How and Why Do We Study Improvisation? (pg. 546)
Musicians’ Perspectives on Improvisation (pg. 547)
Behavioral Studies of Improvisation (pg. 548)
Functional MRI Approaches (pg. 549)
Structural MRI Approaches (pg. 554)
Summary of Neural Studies of Improvisation (pg. 555)
How Can Neuroscientific and Psychological Research Influence Musicians and Music Therapists? (pg. 556)
Future Directions (pg. 557)
Notes (pg. 558)
References (pg. 558)
14. Music Training and Transfer Effects (pg. 565)
Importance of Research on Transfer Effects (pg. 565)
Difficulties and Challenges for Research (pg. 567)
Current and Emerging Views Regarding Music and Transfer Effects (pg. 570)
Processing Speed: A Factor That May Constrain the Effectiveness of Music Training Programs (pg. 585)
New Directions: Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks (pg. 586)
Clinical Implications (pg. 589)
Postscript: Other Practical Applications of Research on Music-Based Transfer Effects (pg. 592)
Conclusions and Future Directions (pg. 593)
References (pg. 596)
15. Music and Movement (pg. 609)
Introduction (pg. 609)
Music and Movement: Behavior (pg. 609)
Neural Mechanisms (pg. 618)
Music and Movement: Applications (pg. 623)
Conclusion (pg. 629)
Bibliography (pg. 629)
16. The Assessment of Musical Ability and Its Determinants (pg. 641)
Introduction (pg. 641)
The Concept of Musical Ability (pg. 642)
Review of Musical Ability Tests (pg. 645)
Determinants of Individual Differences in Musical Ability (pg. 665)
General Discussion and Conclusions (pg. 673)
Note (pg. 675)
References (pg. 676)
17. Singing (pg. 685)
Introduction (pg. 685)
Biomechanics of the Singing Voice (pg. 686)
Brain Mechanisms Underlying Singing (pg. 691)
Development (pg. 702)
Changing Behavior through Singing (pg. 716)
Future Research (pg. 722)
Acknowledgments (pg. 727)
Notes (pg. 727)
References (pg. 730)
18. Musicians in Action: Solo and Ensemble Performance (pg. 751)
1. Introduction (pg. 751)
2. Theoretical Perspectives (pg. 752)
3. Measurement Issues (pg. 754)
4. Solo Performance (pg. 754)
5. Ensemble Performance (pg. 764)
6. Future Directions (pg. 772)
Acknowledgments (pg. 773)
References (pg. 773)
V. Musical Experiences in Everyday Life (pg. 781)
19. Music and Emotion (pg. 783)
Conceptualizing Emotion in Music (pg. 783)
Methods of Investigating Music and Emotion (pg. 786)
Emotional Expression in Music (pg. 794)
Subjective Aspects of Felt and Perceived Emotion in Music (pg. 803)
Neurological Underpinnings of Emotion (pg. 807)
Conclusion (pg. 811)
References (pg. 812)
20. The Social Psychology of Music (pg. 827)
Musical Effects: Does Music Affect How People Think, Feel, and Behave? (pg. 828)
Musical Preferences: Why Do People Like Some Types of Music More than Others? (pg. 833)
Musical Uses: What Function Does Music Serve in People’s Lives? (pg. 841)
Conclusion (pg. 847)
References (pg. 847)
21. Music Therapy (pg. 857)
Music Education Approaches to Music Therapy (pg. 859)
Approaches to Music Therapy Based on Models of Psychology (pg. 865)
Biomedical Approaches to Music Therapy (pg. 872)
Neuroscience Models (pg. 878)
References (pg. 891)
Contributors (pg. 917)
Index (pg. 919)
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