Brain Structure and Its Origins

in Development and in Evolution of Behavior and the Mind

by Schneider, Schneider

ISBN: 9780262321679 | Copyright 2014

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This introduction to the structure of the central nervous system demonstrates that the best way to learn how the brain is put together is to understand something about why. It explains why the brain is put together as it is by describing basic functions and key aspects of its evolution and development. This approach makes the structure of the brain and spinal cord more comprehensible as well as more interesting and memorable. The book offers a detailed outline of the neuroanatomy of vertebrates, especially mammals, that equips students for further explorations of the field. 

Gaining familiarity with neuroanatomy requires multiple exposures to the material with many incremental additions and reviews. Thus the early chapters of this book tell the story of the brain’s origins in a first run-through of the entire system; this is followed by other such surveys in succeeding chapters, each from a different angle. The book proceeds from basic aspects of nerve cells and their physiology to the evolutionary beginnings of the nervous system to differentiation and development, motor and sensory systems, and the structure and function of the main parts of the brain. Along the way, it makes enlightening connections to evolutionary history and individual development. Brain Structure and Its Origins can be used for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate classes in neuroscience, biology, psychology, and related fields, or as a reference for researchers and others who want to know more about the brain.

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Contents (pg. vii)
Detailed Contents (pg. xi)
Preface (pg. xxiii)
I INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION (pg. 1)
1 Getting Ready for a Brain Structure Primer (pg. 3)
2 Methods for Mapping Pathways and Interconnections That Enable the Integrative Activity of the CNS (pg. 29)
II THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, FROM INITIAL STEPS TO ADVANCED CHORDATES (pg. 53)
3 Evolution of Multicellular Organisms with Neuron-Based Coordination (pg. 55)
4 Expansions of the Neuronal Apparatus of Success (pg. 67)
III INTRODUCTION TO CONNECTION PATTERNS AND SPECIALIZATIONS IN THE EVOLVING CNS (pg. 87)
5 The Ancestors of Mammals: Sketch of a Pre-mammalian Brain (pg. 89)
6 Some Specializations Involving Head Receptors and Brain Expansions (pg. 107)
7 The Components of the Forebrain Including the Specialty of the Mammals: The Neocortex (pg. 117)
IV DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFERENTIATION: SPINAL LEVEL (pg. 137)
8 The Neural Tube Forms in the Embryo, and CNS Development Begins (pg. 139)
9 The Lower Levels of Background Support: Spinal Cord and the Innervation of the Viscera (pg. 153)
Intermission (pg. 175)
V DIFFERENTIATION OF THE BRAIN VESICLES (pg. 179)
10 Hindbrain Organization, Specializations, and Distortions (pg. 181)
11 Why a Midbrain? Notes on Evolution, Structure, and Functions (pg. 205)
12 Picturing the Forebrain with a Focus on Mammals (pg. 217)
13 Growth of the Great Networks of Nervous Systems (pg. 235)
VI A BRIEF STUDY OF MOTOR SYSTEMS (pg. 263)
14 Overview of Motor System Structure (pg. 265)
15 Descending Pathways and Evolution (pg. 283)
16 The Temporal Patterns of Movements (pg. 299)
VII BRAIN STATES (pg. 309)
17 Widespread Changes in Brain State (pg. 311)
VIII SENSORY SYSTEMS (pg. 323)
18 Taste (pg. 325)
19 Olfaction (pg. 333)
20 Visual Systems: Origins and Functions (pg. 355)
21 Visual Systems: The Retinal Projections (pg. 371)
22 The Visual Endbrain Structures (pg. 393)
23 Auditory Systems (pg. 417)
IX THE FOREBRAIN AND ITS ADAPTIVE PRIZES: A SNAPSHOT (pg. 447)
24 Forebrain Origins: From Primitive Appendage to Modern Dominance (pg. 449)
X THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND LIMBIC SYSTEM (pg. 465)
25 Regulating the Internal Milieu and the Basic Instincts (pg. 467)
26 Core Pathways of the Limbic System, with Memory for Meaningful Places (pg. 483)
27 Hormones and the Shaping of Brain Structures (pg. 501)
28 The Medial Pallium Becomes the Hippocampus (pg. 513)
29 The Limbic Striatum and Its Outpost in the Temporal Lobe (pg. 537)
XI CORPUS STRIATUM (pg. 559)
30 The Major Subpallial Structure of the Endbrain (pg. 561)
31 Lost Dopamine Axons: Consequences and Remedies (pg. 583)
Intermission (pg. 589)
XII THE CROWN OF THE MAMMALIAN CNS: THE NEOCORTEX (pg. 593)
32 Structural Origins of Object Cognition, Place Cognition, Dexterity, and Planning (pg. 595)
33 Basic Neocortical Organization: Cells, Modules, and Connections (pg. 617)
34 Structural Change in Development and in Maturity (pg. 645)
Figure Credits (pg. 669)
Index (pg. 679)

Gerald E. Schneider

Gerald E. Schneider is Professor of Neuroscience in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT.



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