Biological Intelligence for Biomimetic Robots

An Introduction to Synthetic Neuroethology

by Ayers

| ISBN: 9780262374996 | Copyright 2023

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An introduction to how neuroethology can inform the development of robots controlled by synaptic networks instead of algorithms, from a pioneer in biorobotics.

The trait most fundamental to the evolution of animals is the capacity to adapt to novel circumstances in unpredictable environments. Recent advances in biomimetics have made it feasible to construct robots modeled on such unsupervised autonomous behavior, and animal models provide a library of existence proofs. Filling an important gap in the field, this introductory textbook illuminates how neurobiological principles can inform the development of robots that are controlled by synaptic networks, as opposed to algorithms. Joseph Ayers provides a comprehensive overview of the sensory and motor systems of a variety of model biological systems and shows how their behaviors may be implemented in artificial systems, such as biomimetic robots.

•Introduces the concept of biological intelligence as applied to robots, building a strategy for autonomy based on the neuroethology of simple animal models
•Provides a mechanistic physiological framework for the control of innate behavior
•Illustrates how biomimetic vehicles can be operated in the field persistently and adaptively
•Developed by a pioneer in biorobotics with decades of teaching experience
•Proven in the classroom
•Suitable for professionals and researchers as well as undergraduate and graduate students in cognitive science and computer science

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Contents (pg. v)
Preface (pg. vii)
1. What Is Biological Intelligence? (pg. 1)
2. Types of Behavior (pg. 9)
Ethology and Ethograms (pg. 9)
The Structure of Behavior (pg. 9)
Definitions of Behavioral Acts (pg. 11)
3. Motor Strategies and Biomechanical Advantages for Diverse Environments (pg. 17)
Mimetic Principles (pg. 17)
Ecological Niches (pg. 18)
Perturbation (pg. 20)
Efficiency (pg. 21)
Biomechanical Adaptations (pg. 21)
Skeletons (pg. 23)
4. Identified Neurons and Neuroanatomy (pg. 25)
The Phylogeny of Nervous Systems (pg. 25)
Golgi Stain and Cell Doctrine (pg. 25)
Techniques of Visualizing Neurons (pg. 26)
Autoradiography (pg. 28)
Transgenetic Stains (pg. 29)
5. Physiological Models of Neurons (pg. 33)
Membranes (pg. 33)
Solutions (pg. 35)
Diffusion (pg. 35)
Permeability (pg. 36)
Mechanisms of Permeation of Solute Molecules through Membranes (pg. 37)
Selective Permeability (pg. 37)
Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential (pg. 38)
Determination of the Resting Potential (pg. 43)
Action Potentials (pg. 43)
Voltage-Dependent Permeabilities (pg. 46)
Pharmacological Separation of Ionic Currents (pg. 49)
A Family of Ion Channels (pg. 52)
Inward Rectifier (KV2.1) (pg. 55)
Nonspecific Signal-Mediated Cationic Currents (aka IB, ICAN, TRPm4) (pg. 56)
6. Nonlinear Dynamical Models of Neurons (pg. 71)
Why Nonlinear Dynamical Models? (pg. 71)
Modeling of Synaptic Inputs (pg. 77)
7. Synaptic Physiology and Networks (pg. 79)
There Are Three Forms of Synaptic Transmission (pg. 79)
Chemical Synaptic Potentials (pg. 82)
Characteristics of Chemical Transmission (pg. 83)
Presynaptic Events (pg. 86)
Postsynaptic Events (pg. 93)
Whether a PSP Is Excitatory or Inhibitory Depends on Several Factors (pg. 96)
Synaptic Integration (pg. 101)
Chemical Synaptic Modulation of Electrotonic Connectivity (pg. 108)
8. Neuronal Integration (pg. 113)
Additive Aspects of Neuronal Integration (pg. 114)
What Is the Effect of Membrane Capacitance? (pg. 117)
Spatial Aspects of Neuronal Integration (pg. 118)
9. Neuromodulation and Behavioral States (pg. 127)
Role of Perineuronal Nets in Spatial Compartmentalization of Neuromodulation (pg. 132)
How Is Signaling Specificity Achieved in the Living Cell? (pg. 135)
Role of Perineuronal Nets in Spatial Compartmentalization of Neuromodulation (pg. 136)
General Rules of Neuromodulation (pg. 143)
Behavioral States (pg. 149)
10. Motor Networks and Central Pattern Generators (pg. 151)
Innate Behavior Is Mediated by Central Pattern Generators (pg. 151)
Network Configurations Mediating Canonical Synergies (pg. 155)
11. Command Neurons (pg. 165)
Behavior Controlled by Crustacean Command Neurons (pg. 165)
In Vitro Analysis of Swimmeret Command Neurons (pg. 168)
Crustacean Commands Are Neuromodulatory (pg. 170)
Organizational Principles of Motor Commands (pg. 172)
12. Coordinating Systems and Gaits (pg. 173)
Function of Coordinating Systems (pg. 173)
Entrainment and Gait Control (pg. 174)
Network Basis of Coordinating Systems (pg. 175)
13. Sensory Neurons and Sensory Coding (pg. 179)
Types of Sense Organs (pg. 182)
Labeled Line Coding (pg. 183)
Types of Labeled Lines (pg. 186)
Exteroceptors (pg. 188)
The Binding Problem (pg. 193)
14. Physiology of Muscle (pg. 195)
Physiology of Muscle (pg. 195)
Muscle Fiber Types (pg. 199)
15. Types of Motor Systems (pg. 203)
Myogenic Control (pg. 203)
16. Proprioceptive Reflexes (pg. 211)
Reflex Arrangements (pg. 211)
CPG are Targets of Sensory Feedback (pg. 213)
17. Spatial Orientation—Taxes, Kineses, and Exteroceptive Reflexes (pg. 221)
Spatial Orientation of Animals (pg. 221)
Topological Organization of Premotor Systems (pg. 221)
Responses to Optical Flow: Moving Visual Surrounds (pg. 226)
18. Behavioral Choice and Hierarchies (pg. 231)
Behavioral Ethogram of Pleurobranchia (pg. 232)
Behavioral Choice Paradigm (pg. 233)
Modulation of Behavioral Choice (pg. 233)
Population Control of Choice Variability (pg. 234)
Mechanisms of Behavioral Choice (pg. 235)
19. Behavioral Sequencing (pg. 237)
Chain Reflexes: Long-Term Organization of Leech Feeding (pg. 237)
Different Response Latencies to the Same Stimulus (pg. 242)
20. Biomimetic Robots (pg. 247)
Biomimetics vs. Bioinspiration (pg. 247)
Innate Behavior Architecture (pg. 248)
Biomimetic Actuation (pg. 249)
Aerial Vehicles (pg. 250)
21. Power Supplies and Charging (pg. 255)
Distributed Animal Power (pg. 255)
Multiple Sources of Electrical Power in Biomimetic Robots (pg. 256)
A Base Station for Persistent Operations (pg. 257)
Autonomous Homing and Docking (pg. 258)
Power Status: A Sense of Hunger (pg. 259)
Ambient Energy Harvesting (pg. 261)
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (pg. 262)
22. Control Hardware, Morphing Bodies, and Hulls (pg. 265)
Control Hardware (pg. 265)
Morphing Hulls (pg. 269)
Ambulatory Vehicle (pg. 272)
23. Synthetic Biology and Biohybrid Sensors (pg. 279)
24. Myomorphic Actuators (pg. 283)
Choosing an Artificial Muscle Technology (pg. 283)
Nitinol SMA as an Artificial Muscle (pg. 284)
Artificial Muscle Construction (pg. 285)
Performance of SMA Artificial Muscles (pg. 288)
Performance of Muscle Modules on Robot legs (pg. 290)
25. Acoustic Communications and Localization (pg. 291)
Communications and Localization Systems (pg. 291)
Long Baseline Array (pg. 293)
26. Supervision and Motivation (pg. 297)
A Concept of Operations for Remote Sensing (pg. 298)
Deployment (pg. 298)
Marsupial Operations (pg. 300)
27. Reactive Autonomy and Adaptive Sequencing (pg. 303)
Innate Behavioral Capabilities (pg. 305)
28. Stigmergy and Cooperative Behavior (pg. 309)
29. Biological Intelligence (pg. 313)
Generality of the Biological Intelligence Approach (pg. 316)
References (pg. 319)
Index (pg. 345)

Joseph Ayers

Joseph Ayers is Professor of Marine and Environmental Sciences and Biology in the Marine Science Center at Northeastern University.

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