Autonomous Robots

From Biological Inspiration to Implementation and Control

by Bekey

ISBN: 9780262292474 | Copyright 2005

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Contents (pg. vii)
Preface (pg. xiii)
1 Autonomy and Control in Animals and Robots (pg. 1)
1.1 What Is Autonomy? (pg. 1)
1.2 What Is a Robot? (pg. 2)
1.3 Problems of Robot Control (pg. 2)
1.4 Biologically Inspired Robot Control (pg. 7)
1.5 Sensors (pg. 10)
1.6 Actuators (pg. 12)
1.7 Intelligence (pg. 12)
1.8 A Brief Survey of Current Robots and Associated Control Issues (pg. 13)
1.8.1 Industrial Manipulators (pg. 14)
1.8.2 A Pioneer Mobile Robot (pg. 15)
1.8.3 TITAN Quadrupeds (pg. 16)
1.8.4 Khepera Mobile Robot (pg. 18)
1.8.5 Snake Robots (pg. 18)
1.8.6 A Robot Helicopter (pg. 19)
1.8.7 Roomba, a Household Robot (pg. 22)
1.8.8 AIBO, an Entertainment Robot (pg. 22)
1.8.9 ASIMO, a Biped Walker (pg. 23)
1.8.10 Cog (pg. 24)
1.9 Concluding Remarks and Organization of the Book (pg. 25)
2 Control and Regulation in Biological Systems (pg. 27)
2.1 Homeostasis (pg. 27)
2.2 Engineering and Biological Control Systems (pg. 29)
2.2.1 Reference Values (pg. 30)
2.2.2 Comparator and Negative Sign (pg. 30)
2.2.3 Sensors (pg. 31)
2.2.4 Actuators (pg. 31)
2.2.5 Adaptivity (pg. 31)
2.2.6 Control Redundancy (pg. 32)
2.2.7 Multipurpose Controllers (pg. 32)
2.3 Multiple Levels of Control: Control Architecture (pg. 33)
2.4 Other Biological Control Systems (pg. 34)
2.4.1 Control of Body Temperature (pg. 34)
2.4.2 Control of Skeletal Muscles and the Stretch Reflex (pg. 36)
2.5 Nonlinearities in Biological Control Systems (pg. 38)
2.5.1 The van der Pol Equation (pg. 40)
2.6 Cost Functions (pg. 42)
2.7 Control of Functional Motions in Humans (pg. 43)
2.8 Relevance to Robot Control (pg. 43)
2.9 Historical Background (pg. 44)
3 Fundamental Structural Elements (pg. 45)
3.1 The Structural Elements (pg. 45)
3.2 Actuators for Robots (pg. 47)
3.2.1 Electric Motors (pg. 49)
3.2.2 Artificial Muscles: McKibben Type (pg. 51)
3.2.3 Artificial Muscles: Shape Memory Alloys (pg. 52)
3.2.4 Artificial Muscles: Electroactive Polymers (pg. 54)
3.2.5 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Actuators (pg. 55)
3.2.6 Electromagnetic Actuators (pg. 56)
3.2.7 Stepper Motors (pg. 56)
3.2.8 Other Actuators (pg. 57)
3.2.9 Linkages (pg. 57)
3.3 Sensors for Robots (pg. 57)
3.3.1 Proprioceptive Sensing (pg. 58)
3.3.2 Exteroceptive Sensing (pg. 63)
3.4 Localization (pg. 68)
3.5 Computation and Communication (pg. 68)
4 Low-Level Robot Control (pg. 71)
4.1 Engineering Control: An Intuitive Introduction to Its Advantages and Limitations (pg. 71)
4.2 Robot Controller Design Principles (pg. 76)
4.2.1 Design of a Closed-Loop Position Control System for a Robot (pg. 76)
4.2.2 PID Controllers (pg. 78)
4.3 Control of Multilink Structures (pg. 79)
4.4 State Space Approach: Theory, Advantages, and Limitations (pg. 82)
4.5 Nonlinear Robot Control (pg. 85)
4.5.1 Linearization (pg. 85)
4.5.2 Special Methods for Second-Order Systems (pg. 88)
4.6 Adaptive Control and Other Approaches (pg. 88)
4.7 Model-Free Approaches to Control (pg. 91)
4.8 Uncertainty in Control System Design (pg. 92)
4.9 Biologically Inspired Control: Basic Principles (pg. 93)
5 Software Architectures for Autonomous Robots (pg. 97)
5.1 What Is a Robot Architecture? (pg. 97)
5.2 Where Does Control Fit into Robot Software? (pg. 98)
5.3 A Brief History (pg. 99)
5.4 Hierarchical and Deliberative Architectures (pg. 100)
5.5 Reactive and Behavior-Based Architectures (pg. 104)
5.6 Hybrid Reactive-Deliberative Architectures (pg. 107)
5.7 Major Features of Hybrid Architectures (pg. 110)
5.7.1 Robot Hardware Abstraction (pg. 110)
5.7.2 Extensibility and Scalability (pg. 110)
5.7.3 Run Time Overhead (pg. 111)
5.7.4 Actuator Control Model (pg. 112)
5.7.5 Software Characteristics (pg. 112)
5.7.6 Tools and Methods (pg. 112)
5.7.7 Documentation (pg. 112)
5.8 Case Study 5.1: The Tropism-Based Architecture (pg. 113)
5.9 Case Study 5.2: The USC AVATAR Architecture for Autonomous Helicopter Control (pg. 117)
5.9.1 Behavior-Based Control System Architecture (pg. 118)
5.9.2 Teaching by Showing: Architecture of Individual Controllers (pg. 120)
5.10 Open Architectures in Robotics (pg. 121)
5.11 Concluding Remarks (pg. 122)
6 Robot Learning (pg. 125)
6.1 The Nature of Robot Learning (pg. 125)
6.2 Learning and Control (pg. 126)
6.3 General Issues in Learning by Robotic Systems (pg. 128)
6.4 Reinforcement Learning (pg. 129)
6.5 Q-Learning (pg. 134)
6.6 Case Study 6.1: Learning to Avoid Obstacles Using Reinforcement Learning (pg. 135)
6.6.1 The Robot and Its Task (pg. 135)
6.6.2 The Network Model for Action Selection (pg. 136)
6.6.3 Reinforcement Learning (pg. 138)
6.7 Learning Using Neural Networks (pg. 140)
6.7.1 Biological Basis (pg. 140)
6.7.2 Computational Neurons and Perceptron Learning (pg. 142)
6.7.3 Learning in Multilayer Feedforward Networks (pg. 146)
6.7.4 Representation of Individual Neurons (pg. 148)
6.8 Case Study 6.2: Learning How to Grasp Objects of Different Shapes (pg. 149)
6.9 Evolutionary Algorithms (pg. 153)
6.9.1 Selection and Reproduction (pg. 154)
6.10 Case Study 6.3: Learning to Walk Using Genetic Algorithms (pg. 156)
6.10.1 Applicable Software (pg. 157)
6.10.2 The Neural Model for Leg Movement (pg. 158)
6.10.3 The Genetic Algorithm (pg. 161)
6.10.4 Fitness Function for Evolving Oscillator Parameters (pg. 162)
6.10.5 Fitness Function for Walking (pg. 163)
6.10.6 Conclusion (pg. 165)
6.11 Case Study 6.4: Learning in the Tropism Architecture (pg. 165)
6.11.1 Ontogenetic Learning (pg. 165)
6.11.2 Phylogenetic Learning (pg. 168)
6.11.3 Results (pg. 171)
6.11.4 Conclusion (pg. 173)
6.12 Learning by Imitation (pg. 175)
6.12.1 Mirror Neurons and the Neurophysiology of Imitation (pg. 175)
6.12.2 Levels of Imitation (pg. 176)
6.12.3 Learning Movement Sequences from Demonstration (pg. 177)
6.12.4 Developmental Approach to Imitation Learning (pg. 179)
6.12.5 High-Level Learning from Demonstration (pg. 180)
6.12.6 Other Experiments in Learning by Imitation (pg. 183)
6.13 Whither Robot Learning? (pg. 184)
7 Robot Locomotion: An Overview (pg. 185)
7.1 Animal Locomotion (pg. 185)
7.2 Wheeled Vehicles (pg. 186)
7.2.1 ATRV Four-Wheeled Robots (pg. 187)
7.2.2 Koala Six-Wheeled Robots (pg. 188)
7.2.3 Other Wheeled Robots (pg. 188)
7.2.4 JPL Rovers (pg. 190)
7.2.5 Summary of Wheeled Robots (pg. 191)
7.2.6 Control Issues (pg. 193)
7.3 Tracked Vehicles (pg. 197)
7.4 Legged Robots (pg. 199)
7.5 Hopping Robots (pg. 200)
7.6 Serpentine (Snake) Robots (pg. 203)
7.6.1 Robot Snakes from Shigeo Hirose (pg. 203)
7.6.2 Other Snake Robots (pg. 205)
7.7 Underwater Robotic Vehicles (pg. 209)
7.7.1 Dynamics (pg. 210)
7.7.2 Control (pg. 212)
7.7.3 Other Subsystems (pg. 212)
7.7.4 Example 1: ODIN (pg. 212)
7.7.5 Example 2: AUSS (pg. 213)
7.7.6 Example 3: ROMEO (pg. 214)
7.7.7 Example 4: OTTER (pg. 214)
7.7.8 Limited-Task AUVs (pg. 216)
7.7.9 Summary (pg. 217)
7.8 Biologically Inspired Underwater Robots (pg. 217)
7.8.1 The MIT RoboTuna1 and RoboPike (pg. 219)
7.8.2 The Draper Laboratory Tuna Robot (pg. 221)
7.8.3 The Mitsubishi Robotic Fishes (pg. 221)
7.8.4 Other Biomimetic Underwater Robots (pg. 222)
7.9 Climbing and Other Unusual Locomotion Methods (pg. 225)
7.9.1 Climbing Robots (pg. 225)
7.9.2 Brachiating Robots (pg. 231)
7.10 Flying Robots (pg. 232)
7.10.1 Fixed-Wing UAVs (pg. 232)
7.10.2 Micro-UAVs (pg. 233)
7.10.3 Rotary-Wing UAVs (pg. 237)
7.10.4 Biologically Inspired Flying Robots (pg. 244)
7.11 Self-Reconfigurable Robots (pg. 245)
7.12 Concluding Remarks (pg. 251)
8 Biped Locomotion (pg. 253)
8.1 Standing and Walking on Two Legs (pg. 253)
8.2 The Nature of Human Walking (pg. 254)
8.3 Musculoskeletal Dynamics (pg. 256)
8.4 Control of Human Locomotion (pg. 258)
8.5 Robotic Models of Biped Locomotion (pg. 262)
8.5.1 The Biped Robot Stability Problem (pg. 262)
8.5.2 Control of Leg Movements during Walking (pg. 263)
8.6 Some Biped Robots (pg. 263)
8.6.1 Early Biped Robots (pg. 263)
8.6.2 Raibert’s Monopod and Bipeds (pg. 265)
8.6.3 Walking Legs (pg. 268)
8.6.4 Other Japanese Biped Robots (pg. 270)
8.6.5 Pratt’s M-2 Headless Robot with Series-Elastic Actuators (pg. 270)
8.6.6 Other Walking Biped Projects (pg. 273)
8.7 Mathematical Models of Biped Kinematics and Dynamics (pg. 274)
8.8 Modeling Compensatory Trunk Movements While Walking (pg. 276)
8.9 Mechanical Aids to Human Walking (pg. 277)
8.9.1 Above-Knee Prostheses (pg. 278)
8.9.2 Intelligent, Sensor-Based Above-Knee Prostheses (pg. 279)
8.9.3 Reflex-Controlled Orthoses (pg. 282)
8.10 Concluding Remarks (pg. 283)
9 Locomotion in Animals and Robots with Four, Six, and Eight Legs (pg. 285)
9.1 Introduction to Legged Locomotion in Animals (pg. 285)
9.2 Neural Control of Locomotion (pg. 286)
9.3 Walking Multilegged Robots (pg. 287)
9.4 Six-Legged Walking Machines (pg. 289)
9.4.1 Insect Locomotion (pg. 291)
9.4.2 The Case Western Cockroaches and Their Control (pg. 291)
9.4.3 Genghis (pg. 294)
9.4.4 Rodney (pg. 296)
9.4.5 Walking-Stick Insect Models (pg. 296)
9.4.6 Ambler, a Very Large Hexapod (pg. 298)
9.4.7 RHex, a Fast, Biologically Inspired Hexapod (pg. 299)
9.4.8 The Sprawl Family of Hand-Sized, Fast Hexapods (pg. 300)
9.4.9 Final Comments on Hexapods (pg. 302)
9.5 Locomotion in Four-Legged Animals (pg. 303)
9.6 Four-Legged Walking Machines (pg. 304)
9.6.1 The Phony Pony (pg. 305)
9.6.2 Raibert’s Quadrupeds (pg. 307)
9.6.3 The TITAN Robots (pg. 307)
9.6.4 The Scout II, a Simple Quadruped Designed for Bounding (pg. 312)
9.6.5 Other Research Quadrupeds (pg. 315)
9.6.6 AIBO and Other Toy Robots (pg. 318)
9.6.7 Stability and Control (pg. 318)
9.7 Finite-State Models of Legged Locomotion (pg. 321)
9.8 Case Study 9.1: Control and Stability in the Quadruped Meno (pg. 323)
9.8.1 Stability and Control (pg. 325)
9.8.2 Navigation (pg. 327)
9.8.3 Results (pg. 327)
9.9 Eight-Legged Walking Machines (pg. 327)
9.9.1 Dante (pg. 328)
9.9.2 The Robot Lobster (pg. 330)
9.9.3 Other Eight-Legged Robots (pg. 330)
9.10 Concluding Remarks (pg. 332)
10 Arm Motion and Manipulation (pg. 333)
10.1 Human Arms and Robot Arms (pg. 333)
10.2 Control of Arm Motion in Humans (pg. 335)
10.2.1 Structure and Movement (pg. 335)
10.2.2 Control (pg. 337)
10.3 Robot Manipulators (pg. 338)
10.3.1 Manipulator Structures (pg. 339)
10.3.2 Sensors (pg. 340)
10.3.3 Power and Control (pg. 340)
10.3.4 Coordinate Frames and Transformations (pg. 340)
10.4 Some Typical Robot Arms (pg. 341)
10.4.1 The KUKA KR 16 Multipurpose Industrial Robot (pg. 341)
10.4.2 The Gripper on the Khepera Mobile Robot (pg. 342)
10.4.3 Arms and Grippers on ActivMedia Research Robots (pg. 343)
10.4.4 Arms on Humanoid Robots (pg. 344)
10.4.5 Other Manipulators (pg. 347)
10.5 Forward Kinematics of Manipulators (pg. 347)
10.6 Inverse Kinematics (pg. 348)
10.7 Dynamics (pg. 350)
10.8 Manipulator Control (pg. 351)
10.9 Alternative Approaches to Manipulator Control (pg. 352)
10.9.1 Neural Networks for Inverse Kinematics (pg. 353)
10.9.2 Inverse Dynamics (pg. 354)
10.10 Arm Prosthetics and Orthotics (pg. 355)
10.10.1 Arm Prostheses (pg. 356)
10.10.2 Orthotic Arms (pg. 358)
10.11 Concluding Remarks (pg. 361)
11 Control of Grasping in Human and Robot Hands (pg. 363)
11.1 Introduction to Hands (pg. 363)
11.2 Reaching and Grasping (pg. 365)
11.3 Simple Robot End E¤ectors (pg. 368)
11.4 Multifingered Robot Hands (pg. 371)
11.4.1 General Considerations (pg. 372)
11.4.2 Sensors (pg. 373)
11.4.3 Examples of Robot Hands (pg. 375)
11.5 Case Study 11.1: The Belgrade-USC Hand (pg. 378)
11.5.1 Hardware (pg. 381)
11.5.2 Sensors (pg. 383)
11.5.3 Control System Architecture (pg. 383)
11.6 Prosthetic Hands (pg. 385)
11.6.1 The RSL Streeter MultiControl Prosthetic Hand (pg. 388)
11.6.2 The Otto Bock SensorHand (pg. 389)
11.6.3 Other Prosthetic Hands (pg. 390)
11.7 Concluding Remarks (pg. 390)
12 Control of Multiple Robots (pg. 391)
12.1 Principles and Problems of Multiple-Robot Systems (pg. 391)
12.2 Biological Inspiration: Sociobiology (pg. 393)
12.3 A Brief History of Multiple Robots (pg. 395)
12.4 Control Issues in Autonomous-Robot Colonies (pg. 399)
12.5 Case Study 12.1: Centralized Control of Very Simple Robots (pg. 400)
12.6 Some Multiple-Robot Architectures (pg. 402)
12.6.1 Mataric´’s ‘‘Nerd Herd’’ (pg. 402)
12.6.2 The MissionLab Architecture (pg. 404)
12.6.3 The ALLIANCE Architecture and the Problem of Cooperative Multirobot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) (pg. 407)
12.6.4 The Pheromone Architecture (pg. 411)
12.6.5 The Ranger-Scout Architecture (pg. 412)
12.7 Swarm and Cellular Robotics (pg. 412)
12.8 Communication among Multiple Robots (pg. 415)
12.8.1 Cooperation without Communication (pg. 416)
12.8.2 Communication among Embedded Robots (pg. 419)
12.9 Formation Control (pg. 420)
12.9.1 Formation Control Using Only Local Information (pg. 421)
12.9.2 Global Approaches to Formation Control (pg. 424)
12.9.3 Spacecraft Formation Architectures (pg. 425)
12.10 Robot Soccer (pg. 427)
12.11 Heterogeneous Robot Teams (pg. 429)
12.12 Task Assignment (pg. 431)
12.13 Design Issues in Multiple-Robot Systems (pg. 435)
12.13.1 Interrobot Communication (pg. 436)
12.13.2 Task Assignment and Specialization (pg. 436)
12.13.3 Hierarchy and Organization (pg. 437)
12.13.4 Reliability, Self-Repair, and Robustness (pg. 437)
12.13.5 Control Architectures (pg. 437)
12.13.6 Mutual Recognition (pg. 438)
12.13.7 Deployment (pg. 438)
12.13.8 Localization (pg. 438)
12.13.9 Formation Control (pg. 438)
12.13.10 Scalability (pg. 438)
12.14 Conclusions (pg. 439)
13 Humanoid Robots (pg. 441)
13.1 Introduction: Why Humanoids? (pg. 441)
13.1.1 Other Motivations for the Design of Humanoids (pg. 443)
13.1.2 Humanoid Dynamics and Stability (pg. 444)
13.2 Historical Background (pg. 444)
13.3 Full-Body Humanoids (pg. 448)
13.3.1 The Honda P-Series Robots (pg. 448)
13.3.2 ASIMO (pg. 449)
13.3.3 QRIO (The Sony Dream Robot) (pg. 450)
13.3.4 The Sarcos-Kawato Humanoid (pg. 453)
13.3.5 The Waseda University Humanoids (pg. 454)
13.3.6 PINO (pg. 455)
13.3.7 HOAP (pg. 456)
13.3.8 Other Humanoid Projects (pg. 457)
13.4 Interaction with Humans (pg. 457)
13.4.1 Minerva (pg. 459)
13.4.2 Hadaly (pg. 459)
13.4.3 Kismet (pg. 460)
13.4.4 Leonardo (pg. 461)
13.5 Special-Purpose Humanoids (pg. 463)
13.5.1 Robonaut (pg. 464)
13.5.2 Cog (pg. 465)
13.5.3 Other Special-Purpose, Partial-Body Humanoids (pg. 466)
13.6 Trends in Humanoid Research (pg. 471)
14 Localization, Navigation, and Mapping (pg. 473)
14.1 Overview (pg. 473)
14.2 Biological Inspiration (pg. 475)
14.2.1 Bird Navigation (pg. 475)
14.2.2 Insect Navigation (pg. 476)
14.2.3 Navigation in Other Animals and Humans (pg. 477)
14.3 Robot Navigation (pg. 478)
14.3.1 A Simplified Scenario (pg. 479)
14.3.2 Navigation by Dead Reckoning (pg. 480)
14.3.3 Inertial Navigation (pg. 482)
14.3.4 Combinations of Local and Global Strategies (pg. 482)
14.4 Mapping (pg. 483)
14.4.1 Metric Mapping (pg. 483)
14.4.2 Topological Mapping (pg. 487)
14.4.3 Combined Metric and Topological Mapping (pg. 488)
14.5 Case Study 14.1: Incremental Topological Mapping (pg. 488)
14.5.1 Landmark Detection (pg. 490)
14.5.2 Concurrent Localization and Mapping (pg. 490)
14.5.3 Experimental Evaluation (pg. 492)
14.6 Localization (pg. 494)
14.6.1 Localization Using Landmarks (Triangulation) (pg. 495)
14.6.2 Kalman Filter Basics (pg. 497)
14.6.3 Kalman Filter–Based Localization (pg. 502)
14.6.4 Other Probabilistic Approaches to Localization (pg. 503)
14.7 Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (pg. 504)
14.8 Multirobot Localization (pg. 504)
14.9 Concluding Remarks (pg. 507)
15 The Future of Autonomous Robots (pg. 509)
15.1 Introduction (pg. 509)
15.2 Current Trends in Robotics (pg. 510)
15.2.1 Entertainment (pg. 510)
15.2.2 Military Applications (pg. 510)
15.2.3 Household and Industrial Service Robots (pg. 511)
15.2.4 Care of the Elderly and People with Disabilities (pg. 511)
15.2.5 Construction and Heavy Industry (pg. 512)
15.3 Human-Robot Cooperation and Interaction (pg. 512)
15.3.1 The Three Es: Emotions, Esthetics, and Ethics (pg. 512)
15.4 Multirobot Systems (pg. 513)
15.5 Micro- and Nanorobots (pg. 513)
15.6 Reconfigurability (pg. 514)
15.7 The Implications of Computer Power (pg. 514)
15.8 Self-Organization, Self-Repair, Autonomous Evolution, and Self-Replication (pg. 515)
15.9 The Potential Dangers of Robotics (pg. 516)
15.10 Concluding Remarks (pg. 518)
Appendix: Introduction to Linear Feedback Control Systems (pg. 519)
A.1 Linear Control Systems in the Frequency Domain (pg. 519)
A.2 The Transfer Function (pg. 522)
A.3 Stability (pg. 526)
A.4 Control System Design (pg. 529)
References (pg. 531)
Author Index (pg. 557)
Subject Index (pg. 563)

George A. Bekey

George A. Bekey is Professor Emeritus in Computer Science at University of Southern California and Distinguished Professor of Engineering at California Polytechnic State University.


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