An Introduction

by Rosenbaum

ISBN: 9780262368728 | Copyright 2023

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Contents (pg. v)
Preface (pg. vii)
1. Intellectual Background (pg. 1)
Plato (pg. 1)
René Descartes (pg. 3)
Omar Khayyam (pg. 6)
John Locke (pg. 6)
Immanuel Kant (pg. 7)
Karl Marx (pg. 8)
John Dewey (pg. 10)
Knowing How and Knowing That (pg. 11)
The Paradox at Hand (pg. 13)
Embodied Cognition (pg. 14)
2. Applications and Methods (pg. 17)
Naturalistic Observation (pg. 18)
Ecological Validity (pg. 21)
Lights, Cameras, Action! (pg. 21)
Cinematic Analysis (pg. 24)
Movies with Markers (pg. 27)
High-Tech Motion Recording (pg. 28)
Reaction Times (pg. 29)
Simple and Choice Reaction Times (pg. 31)
Shepard Mental Rotation (pg. 33)
Recording Brain Activity and Reductionism (pg. 35)
Electroencephalograms (pg. 36)
Positron Emission Tomography Scans (pg. 38)
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pg. 39)
Magnetoencephalography, Optogenetics, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (pg. 41)
3. Bones, Muscles, Nerves (pg. 45)
Bones (pg. 47)
Five Fingers, Five Toes (pg. 50)
Ligaments (pg. 52)
Joints and Their Geometry (pg. 52)
Joints and Joint Pain (pg. 53)
Tendons (pg. 54)
Muscles (pg. 55)
How Are Muscles Controlled? (pg. 57)
Are Muscles Balloons? (pg. 59)
Muscle Cross-Bridges (pg. 60)
Nerves (pg. 61)
Neural Gaps and Myelin (pg. 64)
Motor Neurons, Motor Units, and the Final Common Pathway (pg. 65)
Motor Cortex (pg. 68)
Population Coding (pg. 71)
Population Coding and Mental Rotation (pg. 73)
Some Final Words (pg. 74)
4. Moving in Space and Time (pg. 77)
Route Maps, Survey Maps, and Cognitive Maps (pg. 77)
Smaller Spaces (pg. 79)
Neural Representations of Space (pg. 80)
Neural Representation of Manually Reachable Space (pg. 81)
Individual Differences in Spatial Navigation Abilities (pg. 82)
Timing (pg. 84)
The Problem of Sequencing and Timing (pg. 85)
Tapping (pg. 85)
Sir Charles Sherrington, Reflexes, and the Bell–Magendie Law (pg. 87)
B. F. Skinner (pg. 88)
Karl Lashley (pg. 89)
Errors Reveal Plans (pg. 92)
Freudian Slips (pg. 93)
Action Slips and Abstract Representations (pg. 93)
Bow Bloopers (pg. 95)
Finger Fumblers (pg. 96)
Tongue Twisters (pg. 97)
Lessons Learned (pg. 98)
Handpath Priming (pg. 99)
Hierarchies (pg. 100)
Neural Networks (pg. 101)
Edward Taub, Constraint-Induced Therapy, and the Ethical Treatment of Animals (pg. 103)
5. Learning (pg. 107)
10,000 Hours (pg. 107)
YouTube Overconfidence (pg. 110)
The Case of H.M. (pg. 112)
Hippocampus and Striatum (pg. 113)
Quieter Brains Are More Skillful Brains (pg. 114)
Stages of Skill Learning (pg. 114)
Distributed Practice Is Better Than Massed Practice (pg. 116)
Sleep, Interference, and Consolidation (pg. 116)
Blocked Practice, Varied Practice, and Specificity of Learning (pg. 117)
Power Law of Learning (pg. 119)
Physical Changes and Reflexes (pg. 121)
The Ecological Perspective (pg. 123)
Jolly Jumpers (pg. 125)
6. Feedback (pg. 129)
Trial-and-Error Learning through Feedback (pg. 129)
Control Theory (pg. 132)
Compensatory Tracking (pg. 133)
Step Tracking (Saccadic Eye Movements) and Ramp Tracking (Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements) (pg. 135)
Homing in on Targets (pg. 138)
Speed–Accuracy Trade-offs and Ratio Relations (pg. 139)
Process Models of Aiming (pg. 142)
Vision for Action (pg. 144)
How and What in Neurotypical Individuals (pg. 145)
Visuomotor Adaptation (pg. 147)
Other Forms of Adaptation (pg. 148)
The Rubber-Hand Illusion (pg. 151)
Vision Dominates Touch (pg. 152)
The Pinocchio Effect (pg. 153)
Changes in Body Perception Based on Sound (pg. 153)
7. Feedforward (pg. 157)
Helmholtz, Unconscious Inference, Inflow, and Outflow (pg. 158)
Predictive Changes in the Parietal Cortex (pg. 161)
Saccadic Suppression (pg. 162)
Blink Suppression (pg. 164)
Calls across the Brain and the Zen of Suppression (pg. 165)
Tickle Suppression (pg. 165)
Schizophrenia (pg. 167)
Learning by Doing (pg. 169)
Expectations in House Flies (pg. 171)
Ideomotor Theory (pg. 173)
Embodiment (pg. 176)
Effects of Possibility for Action on Perception (pg. 177)
8. The Degrees-of-Freedom Problem (pg. 181)
The Meaning of the Term “Degrees-of-Freedom Problem” (pg. 181)
Origin and Scope of the Degrees-of-Freedom Problem (pg. 182)
Coupling or Synergies (pg. 186)
Coupling within Limbs and between Lips (pg. 187)
Coupling and Dynamical Systems (pg. 188)
Coupling, Marr’s Three Levels of Explanation, and Cognition (pg. 191)
Mechanical Coupling (pg. 193)
Walking versus Running (pg. 194)
Preflexes (pg. 195)
Equilibrium Point Control in Monkeys (pg. 196)
Equilibrium Point Control in Frogs (pg. 198)
Equifinality in Frogs and Primates (pg. 198)
Equilibrium Point Control in Humans (pg. 200)
Disequilibrium over the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis (pg. 201)
Posture-Based Motion Planning (pg. 202)
Soft Constraints (pg. 206)
The Grasp-Height Effect (pg. 206)
The End-State Comfort Effect (pg. 207)
Second-Order Grasp Planning in Animals and Children (pg. 209)
9. Onward (pg. 213)
Medical Advances (pg. 213)
Robotics (pg. 216)
Styles of Moving (pg. 219)
Emotions (pg. 221)
Social Factors (pg. 225)
Inhibiting Actions (pg. 229)
Precrastination (pg. 232)
Notes (pg. 237)
Preface (pg. 237)
Chapter 1 (pg. 237)
Chapter 2 (pg. 237)
Chapter 3 (pg. 239)
Chapter 4 (pg. 241)
Chapter 5 (pg. 244)
Chapter 6 (pg. 245)
Chapter 7 (pg. 247)
Chapter 8 (pg. 248)
Chapter 9 (pg. 250)
References (pg. 253)
Index (pg. 275)

David A. Rosenbaum

David A. Rosenbaum is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Riverside. He is the author of Human Motor ControlIt's a Jungle in There: How Competition and Cooperation in the Brain Shape the MindKnowing Hands: The Cognitive Psychology of Manual Control, and other books.

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